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    It is an open access online peer reviewed journal that publishes research papers, review articles and case studies in the discipline of Mechanical Engineering


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Optimization for Process Parameter of MIG Welding For Stainless Steel (SS-304) and Mild Steel Using Taguchi and ANOVA Method

[Shalaka A. Mahajan, Er. N. K. Patil] Volume 3: Issue 3, Dec 2016, pp 57-61
Abstract—Metal inert gas welding (MIG) is a gas welding process used in industries for various purposes. Apart from its application in industry it plays a very crucial role in the production of aerospace and aerodynamic structures. MIG welding is one of the modern and advanced methods used for joining two dissimilar materials. The aim of this research project is to determine the influence of various welding parameters. The two metals stainless steel SS304 and mild steel are join by MIG welding process. The parameters of MIG welding are optimized using Taguchi method. Nine experimental runs (L9) based on an orthogonal array Taguchi method were performed. This project presents the effect of welding parameters like welding speed, welding current and welding voltage. The ultimate tensile strength is calculated on UTM machine. The most significant factor and predicted optimal parameter setting is obtained by applying the ANOVA and signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio). Experiment with optimized parameter setting, is giving valid results. The confirmation test is conducted and found that results are closer to the optimized results. These results showed the successful correlation between experimental and statistical techniques.

Index Terms— MIG welding, optimization, orthogonal array, S/N ratio.
[1] Ambekar, S. D., and Sunil R. Wadhokar. "Parametric Optimization of Gas metal arc welding process by using Taguchi method on stainless steel AISI 410." International Journal of Research in Modern Engineering and Emerging Technology 3.1 (2015): 1-9.
[2] Durairaj, M., D. Sudharsun, and N. Swamynathan. "Analysis of process parameters in wire EDM with stainless steel using single objective Taguchi method and multi objective grey relational grade." Procedia Engineering 64 (2013): 868-877.
[3] Prasad, VM Varma, et al. "3D Simulation of Residual Stress Developed During TIG Welding of Stainless Steel Pipes" Procedia Technology 24 (2016): 364-371.
[4] Sapakal S. V., and M. T. Telsang. "Parametric optimization of MIG welding using Taguchi design method", International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, Vol. I, Issue IV, July-Sept., 2012, pp 28-30.
[5] Chauhan, Vikas, and R. S. Jadoun. "Parametric optimization of MIG welding for stainless steel (SS-304) and low carbon steel using Taguchi design method" International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, Vol. 6, Issue, 2, February 2015, pp.2662-2666,
[6] Chavda, Satyaduttsinh P., Jayesh V. Desai, and Tushar M. Patel. "A Review on Optimization of MIG Welding Parameters using Taguchi’s DOE Method." International Journal of Engineering and Management Research 4.1 (2014): 16-21.
[7] Javed Kazi, Syed Zaid, Syed Mohd. Talha, Mukri Yasir, Dakhwe Akib Kazi, "A Review on Various Welding Techniques", International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Feb. 2015, pp 22-28.
[8] Ravinder and S. K. Jarial.” Parametric Optimization of TIG Welding on Stainless Steel (202) & Mild Steel by using Taguchi Method” International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, ISSN: 2319-7463 Vol. 4 Issue 6, June-2015, pp: (484-494).
[9] Raut, Mohan B., and S. N. Shelke. "Optimization of Special Purpose Rotational MIG Welding by Experimental and Taguchi Technique." International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) 4.6 (2014): 39-46.
[10] Gulwadea, Shekhar Rajendra, and R. R. Arakerimathb. "Parameter Optimization of TIG Welding Using Austenitic Stainless Steel" International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering, Volume 2, Special Issue 1, MEPCON 2015.

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Performance and Emission Characteristics of Waste Transformer Oil and its diesel blends

[Gaurav V. Bhawde, Devanand R. Tayade, Mukund A. Patil] Volume 3: Issue 3, Dec 2016, pp 52-56
Abstract—Waste oils pose a very serious environment challenge because of their disposal problems all over the world. Currently, there is renewed interest in obtaining energy from wastes hitherto meant for disposal. These wastes are sources of energy and among the several sources of generating this energy are the waste-to-energy categories with potentials for useable fuel production. The biofuel is produced from the used transformer oil (WTO) by transesterification process using KOH, methanol. Single cylinder computerized research diesel engine made is used for experimental purpose. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion, performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder, four strokes, air cooled, direct injection diesel engine, fueled with used transformer oil (WTO) and three of its diesel blends on varying the WTO concentration operation. There is an increase in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of smoke for WTO and its diesel blends compared to diesel. NO emission is higher for WTO and its diesel blends than that of diesel.

Index Terms— Waste Transformer Oil, Alternative Fuel, Diesel Engine, Transesterification
[1] Arpa O., Yumrutas R. and Argunhan Z. (2010), “Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission” Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 91, PP.1241-1249.
[2] Al-Widyan Mohamad I. and Al-Shyoukh Ali O. (2002), “Experimental evaluation of the transesterification of waste palm oil into biodiesel” Bioresource Technology, Volume 85, PP. 253–256.
[3] Al-Widyan Mohamad I., Tashtoush Ghassan and  Abu-Qudais Moh’d (2002), “Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines” Fuel Processing Technology, Volume  76, PP. 91– 103.
[4] Behera Pritinika, Murugan S., Nagarajan G. (2014), “Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine” Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 87, PP. 840–847.
[5] Behera Pritinika and Murugan S.(2013), “Combustion, performance and emission parameters of used transformer oil and its diesel blends in a DI diesel engine” Fuel, Volume 104, PP. 147-154.
[6] Dorado M.P., Ballesteros E., Arnal J.M., Gomez J., Lopez F.J.(2003), “Exhaust emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil” Fuel, Volume 82, PP. 1311-1315.
[7] Dogana O., Celik M.B. and Ozdalyan B. (2012) “The effect of tire derived fuel/diesel fuel blends utilization on diesel engine performance and emissions” Fuel, Volume 95, PP. 340-346.
[8]     Hariharan S, Murugan S. and Nagarajan G. (2013) “Effect of diethyl ether on tyre pyrolysis oil fueled diesel engine” Fuel, Volume 104, PP. 109–115.
[9] Gabina Gorka, Martin Leopoldo , Basurko Oihane C., Clemente Manuel , Aldekoa Sendoa, Uriondo Zigor (2016), “Waste oil-based alternative fuels for marine diesel engines” Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 153,  PP. 28–36.
[10]  Kowalewicz Andrzej and PajÄ…czek Zbigniew (2003) “Dual fuel engine fuelled with ethanol and diesel fuel” Journal of Kones Internal Combustion Engines, Volume10, PP. 1-2.
[11]  Lin Ya-fen, Wu Yo-ping Greg and Chang Chang-Tang, “Combustion characteristics of waste-oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel blends” Fuel, Volume 86, PP. 1772-1780.
[12]  Mani M and Nagarajan G. (2009) “Influence of injection timing on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine running on waste plastic oil” Energy, Volume 34, PP. 1617-1623.
[13]   Mani, M., Nagarajan, G. (2009) “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine using WPO”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 29, PP.2738-44.
[14]  Mani M., Subhash C. and Nagarajan G. (2009), “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using waste plastic oil” Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 29, PP. 2738-2744.
[15]  Meher L.C., Vidya Sagar D. and Naik S.N.(2006), “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by Transesterification — a review” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 10, PP. 248–268.
[16]  Murugan S., Ramaswamy M. C. and Nagarajan G. (2008), “The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines” Waste Management, Volume 28, PP. 2743-2749.
[17]  Murugan S, Ramaswamy MC and Nagarajan G. (2008) “A comparative study on the performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oil–diesel blends” Fuel, Volume 87, PP.2111–2121.
[18]  Murugan S, Ramaswamy MC and Nagarajan G.(2008) “Performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends” Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 89, PP. 152-159.
[19]  Nabi Nurun Md, Akhter Shamim Md and Rahman Atiqur Md (2013), “Waste transformer oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine” Procedia Engineering, Volume 56, PP. 401 – 406.
[20]  Pugazhvadivu M. and Jeyachandran K.(2005), “Investigations on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using preheated waste frying oil as fuel”  Renewable Energy, Volume 30, PP. 2189-2202.
[21]  Rafiq M., Lv Y.Z., Zhou Y., Maa K.B., Wang W., Li C.R. and Wang Q. (2015), “Use of vegetable oils as transformer oils – a review” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 52, PP. 308–324.
[22]  Utlu Zafer and Kocak Mevlut Sureyya (2008), “The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions” Renewable Energy, Volume 33, PP. 1936-1941.
[23] Wang L. J., Song R. Z., Zou H. B., Liu S. H. and Zhou L. B. (2008) “Study on combustion characteristics of a methanol diesel dual-fuel compression ignition engine” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering,  PP.619-627.
[24] Yadav S. Prasanna Raj, Saravanan C.G., Vallinayagam R., Vedharaj S. and Roberts William L. (2015), “Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil” Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 96, PP. 490–498.
[25] Yadav S. Prasanna Raj and Saravanan C.G. (2014), “Engine characterization study of hydrocarbon fuel derived through recycling of waste transformer oil” Journal of the Energy Institute, PP. 1-12.
[26]  Yadav S. Prasanna Raj and Saravanan C.G. (2015), “Effects of hydrocarbon fuel extracted from waste transformer oil on a DI diesel engine” International Journal of Ambient Energy, PP. 1-8.
[27] Yadav S. Prasanna Raj, Saravanan C.G. and Kannan M. (2015), “Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil” Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 54, PP. 881–888.

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Indium Chloride catalyzed [2+2] Cycloaddition reactions in an environmentally benign solvent system

[Abhijeet Lembhale] Volume 3: Issue 3, Dec 2016, pp 46-51
ABSTRACT – Chemist have been painstakingly searching for an ideal solvent for organic reactions that possesses the following criteria : good Chemical & thermal stabilities ,low vapor pressure , low toxicity, high fluidity, wide liquid range, good solubility for a wide range of organic and inorganic reagents and ready recyclability. Indium Chloride catalyzes efficiently the cycladdition reactions of aryl imines with vinyl ether under mild reaction conditions to afford corresponding Azetidine in high yields with diastereoselectivity. Cycloaddition reaction is one of the most powerful synthetic routes for constructing nitrogen containing four membered heterocycles. Azetidine derivatives are an important class of compounds in the field of pharmaceuticals and exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activity including psychotropic,antiallergic,anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activity. Generally Lewis Acids [InCl3,Zn(BF4)2,LiBF4] are known to catalyze the cycloaddition reactions to produce Azetidine derivatives.It has contemplated exploring& utility of InCl3 as Lewis acid catalyst in presence of environmentally benign solvent systemto afford a new motifs whichhave potency as biologically active agents.
Keywords- Lewis Acid catalyst-InCl3,Green solvent ,[2+2] cycloaddition Reactions.
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[5] Trivedi, P.B.; Undavia, N.K.; Dave, A.M.; Bhatt, K.N.; Desai, N.C., Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 4- oxothiazolidines, 4-oxoazetidines, malonic acid hydrazines and pyrazoline derivatives of phenothiazine,Indian J. Chem., 1993, 32B (7), 760-765
[6] Panwar, H.; Verma, R.S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Kumar,A, Synthesis of some substituted Azetidinonyl and thiazolidinonyl-1,3,4-thiadiazino[6,5- Int J Pharm Bio Sci,2013; 4(4): (B) 951 – 957, indoles as prospective antimicrobial agents, Indian J. Chem.,2006, 45B, 2099-2104.
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