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Performance Improvement of VCR base Domestic Refrigerator Using Phase change Material: A Review

[Samadhan M. Khaire, Sachin Nimbulkar, Ganesh Wahile] Volume 4: Issue 1, March 2017, pp 16-20
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Abstract: The target of composing review on thermal energy stockpiling through phase change material has been used for wide applications in the field of cooling and refrigeration. The particular utilization of this inactive warmth stockpiling has been for energy giving through low request and landing of this vitality en through most prominent weights with the likelihood to give vitality saving along these. As of late through the use of this sort of phase change materials in refrigeration spare energy or work amid the power lack has been under unique thought. The utilization of latent heat supply is particularly suited to the furthest reaches of energy to delay sustenance security time and also, utilize the over the best release vitality to enhance the ice chest cooling cycle by its discharge at a true blue time. The rule of latent heat supply using phase change materials (PCMs) can be blend into a hot supply framework legitimate for using substantial coolers. The evaporator is secured with another case which has a capacity limit and it covers the phase change material. The objective of this work is to expand the nourishment conservation time. . The energy store in the PCM is enhanced the fridge cell greatest the off cycle and permit a couple of hours of consistent operation without power supply.

Index Terms — Domestic refrigerator, COP, phase change material, VCR.
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REFERENCES
[1] S.D Sharma, kazunobusagara, latent heat storage materials, and systems; A Review, International Journal of Green Energy,2(2002) 1-56.
[2] Blond, G., M. Le Meste, (2004) ―Principles of frozen storage‖, In: Hui, Y.E., Cornillon, P., Legaretta, I.G., Lim, M.H., Murrell, K.D., Nip, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Frozen Foods.Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 25-53.
[3] Belen Zalba, Jose Ma Maryn, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, 23 (2003) 251-283.
[4] M. Cheralathan, R.Velraj, S. Renganarayanan, Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system, journal of Zhejiang university 7 (2006) 1886- 1895.
[5] K. Azzouza, D. Leducqa, D. Gobinb, performance enhancement of a household refrigerator by addition of latent heat storage, international journal of refrigeration 31 (2008) 892-901.
[6] S. Kalaiselvam, M. Veerappan, A.ArulAaronb, S. Iniyan, Experimental and analytical investigation of solidification and melting characteristics of PCM inside cylindrical encapsulation, International journal of Thermal sciences 47 (2008) 858-874.
[7] J.P. Bedecarrats, F. strub, B. falcon, J.P. Dumas, phase-change thermal energy storage using spherical capsules: performance of a test plant, International Journal of Thermal Science 19 (1998)119-152.
[8] A.C. Marques, J.A. Evans, G.F. Davies, G.G. Maidment, I.D. Wood, (2013). Theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of a thermal energy storage refrigerator, Energy, Volume 55, Pages 457–465.
[9] Rezaur Rahman, Md. Arafat Hossain, Shubhrakanti Das And Adnan Hasan (2013) ―Performance Improvement Of A Domestic Refrigerator By Using PCM (Phase Change Material), Global Journal Of Researches In Engineering Mechanical And Mechanics Engineering Volume 13 Issue 10 Version 1.0 ,pp 2249-4596
[10] P. Subramaniam, C. Tulapurkar, R. Thiyagarajan, G. Thangamani, (2010), Phase Change Materials For Domestic Refrigerators To Improve Food Quality And Prolong Compressor Off Time, International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue
[11] M. A. Sattar, R. Saidur, and H. H. Masjuki, Performance Investigation of Domestic Refrigerator Using Pure Hydrocarbons and Blends of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants, International Journal of Mechanical Systems Science and Engineering Volume 1 Number 1, pp 50-55
[12] E. Oro, L. Miro, M. M. Farid , L.F. Cabeza, (2012), Improving thermal performance of freezers using phase change materials, international journal of refrigeration 35, pp 984-991.
[13] M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.
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The Effects of Cerium Oxide Nano-particle as Fuel Additives in Diesel and Biodiesel Blends: A Review

[Dhiraj S. Patil, Mukund Y. Pandey, Dattatray A. Chopade] Volume 4: Issue 1, March 2017, pp 12-15
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Abstract— The main objective of paper is the need to reduce emission which is major impulse to the development of alternative fuel; biodiesel has been developed as an alternative fuel for C.I. engine but it show slightly lower performance and reduction in SOX, CO, HC, CO2 emissions as compare with diesel. But due to higher oxygen contain in biodiesel the formation of NOX was observed higher. Nano-fuels have shown better improvement in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of CI engine. The blending of biodiesel increases the thermal efficiency near to that of diesel and also significantly large reduction in NOX is observed.

Index Terms— Nano-particle, alternative fuel, biodiesel, performance, emission, NOX
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REFERENCES
[1] J. P. A. Neeft, M. Makkee, and J. A. Moulijn, ―Diesel particulate emission control,‖ Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp.1–69, 1996.
[2] Sajeevan, A. C., & Sajith, V. (2013). Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation. Journal of Engineering.
[3] Sajith, V., Sobhan, C. B., & Peterson, G. P. (2010). Experimental investigations on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additives on biodiesel. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2, 581407.
[4] Karthikeyana, S., Elangob, A., & Prathimac, A. (2014). Performance and Emission Study on Zinc Oxide Particles Addition with Promolion Stearin Wax Biodiesel of Engine. Journal of Science and Industrial Research, 73.
[5] Lenin, M. A., Swaminathan, M. R., & Kumaresan, G. (2013). Performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine with a nanofuel additive. Fuel, 109, 362-365.
[6] Ranaware, A. A., & Satpute, S. T. (2013). Correlation between effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles and ferrofluid on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI Engine. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering.
[7] Hani Chotai, H.,(2014). Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes asfuel-borne additives in Diesterol blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine. Fuel, 130.
[8] Singh, G., & Sharma, S. (2015). Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using nano-fuel: a review.International journal of engineering sciences & research technology, 4(6).
[9] Rao, K. S., Gupta, B. L. V. S., Rao, K. M., & Rao, G. S. (2015). Effects of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Addition in Diesel and Bio Diesel on the Performance and Emission Analysis of CI Engine. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 19(1).
[10] Vairamuthua, A. mozishi , S. S. C., & Thangagiric, B. (2015). Investigation on the Effects of nanocerium oxide on the performance of CalophyllumInophyllum (punnai) biodiesel in a DI diesel engine. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences www. jchps. com ISSN, 974, 2115.
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Design and Fabrication of Wheelchair cum Stretcher

[Nitin G. Sushir, Ravi B. Bopche, Prof. Hemant M. Bansod] Volume 4: Issue 1, March 2017, pp 6-11
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Abstract— The number of disabled and physically weak, handicapped persons are increasing day by day. Therefore transportation medium is required for patients. Wheelchair and stretchers are commonly used in hospitals. And this medical equipment is used for transferring patients from one place to another. And during transferring patients creates problems to patients and also creates problems for attendant and nurse. Sometimes it creates problems to patient. And transferring patient from wheelchair to stretcher, stretcher to bed, and bed to wheelchair is always issue for both hospital staff and family members of patient. This system causes stress, body pain to patients and sometimes chances to sleep down the patient.
Understanding the various issues regarding the mobility equipment a better design will be an asset for medical field and helpful for disabled person. This paper presents the design and fabrication of wheelchair cum stretcher. This project is specially design for patient to transfer patient from bed to wheelchair and wheelchair to stretcher. This innovation helps medical staff to transfer patient from chair to bed very easily because chair become a stretcher and it is adjustable to height of bed.
Conversion of wheelchair to stretcher and vice versa is achieved by simple linkage mechanism which is manually operated easy mechanism. Also the height of stretcher can be adjusted using hydraulic jack manually. It is placed in horizontal position. These jacks push against a lever, which lifts the main lift arm. This is a cost reducing Project which helps patients to do their daily things.


Index Terms—stress, linkage mechanism, hydraulic jack
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REFERENCES
[1] Sreerag C S, Gopinath C, Manas Ranjan Mishra, ―Design and Development of Conceptual Wheelchair Cum Stretcher‖, SASTECH Volume 10, Issue 2, Sep 2011.
[2] Rashid Ahmed K., Safar Abdul Razack , Shamil Salam , Vishnu Prasad K.V.,Vishnu C. R., ―Design and Fabrication of Pneumatically Powered Wheel Chair-Stretcher Device‖, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 10, October 2015
[3] P. S. Desle, M. V. Nagarhalli, R. P. Katkar; ―A Review on Development of Wheelchair cum Stretcher‖; International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, 3(2), 2015
[4] O.M. Sharma, U.D. Gulhane, R.J. Dahake; ―Wheelchair Cum Stretcher, an innovative product for small hospitals‖; Hydraulic World Wide Federation, 2005
[5] Arvind T Wadgure, R D Ashkedkar , and V N Mujbaile (2013) ―Design and development of modified mattresses for patient handling‖ IJMERR Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2013
[6] Praful R Randive and A V Karmankar (2013) ―Stress analysis of mechanisms for trolly-cum-wheelchair‖ IJMERR Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2013
[7] Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), Rehabilitation Equipment-Wheelchairs, Folding size-pecification (First Revision) IS 7554-1991.
[8] Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), Specification for stretcher and stretcher carrier, IS 4037 – 967.
[9] Joshi Mohit, Bhavsar Deep, Patel Vishal, Prajapati Mehul, Shah Rushab, Patel Jimmy,‖ Design and Development of Wheelchair And Bed Forr Old age home‖,Smt. S. R. Patel Engineering College, Dabhi, Dist. Mehsana (North Gujarat).
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