Design and Analysis of a Vertical Pressure Vessel with Effect of Rotational Velocity on the Stresses and Deformation by using ANSYS

[Abdulfatai, A. Faro, Kazeem, K, Salam, Edith, E. Alagbe] Volume 6: Issue 3, Sept 2019, pp  110 - 120

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190702

Abstract In this study, the suitability and influence of Rotational Velocity (RV) on the operating conditions of a vertical Pressure Vessel (PV) was investigated. A vertical PV was designed and analyzed with the aid of ANSYS. Effect of eight different parameters on the performance of the designed PV was analyzed. The results obtained from designed PV using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was validated by comparing it with that obtained from Manually Computed Method (MCM) and Utilization Factor (UF) method. The results of this investigation show that the designed PV was safe within the specified operating condition, the FEA results are more accurate than that of MCM and presence of RV affected the stress distribution and deformation of the PV.
Index terms - Vertical pressure vessel, ANSYS.
[1]   K. S. Naser, Mohammed Q, and Gupta, “Structural & Thermal Analysis of Pressure Vessel by using Ansys,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. Res., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 740–744, 2013.
[2]   I. Satyanarayana and K. Praveena, “Design And Analysis of the Pressure Vessel by using FEM,” Int. J. Innov. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 145–150, 2016.
[3]   P. Sadanandam, U. Ramesh, and S. Tamerat, “Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessel Using Finite Element Method,” Int. J. Latest Technol. Eng. Manag. Appl. Sci., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1–3, 2017.
[4]   V. V Wadkar, S. S. Malgave, D. D. Patil, H. S. Bhore, and P. P. Gavade, “Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessel Using ANSYS,” J. Mech. Eng. Technol., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–13, 2015.
[5]   V. Khobragade, Rashmi and Hiwase, “Design , And Analysis of Pressure Vessel with Hemispherical and Flat Circular End,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Comput., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 12458–12469, 2017.
[6]   A. Ibrahim, Y. Ryu, and M. Saidpour, “Stress Analysis of Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels,” Mod. Mech. Eng., vol. 5, pp. 1–9, 2015.
[7]   J. Z. Li, “Computer Aided Modeling and Simulation of Structural Pressure Vessel Material Computer Aided Modeling and Simulation of Structural Pressure Vessel Material Performance,” in 2012 International Conference on Structures and Building Materials, 2012, pp. 1–10.
[8]   O. T. Askestrand, Frode T and Gudmestad, “A Comparison Study of Pressure Vessel Design using Different Standards,” in 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2013), June 9-14, Nantes, France, 2013, no. June, pp. 1–15.
[9]   ASME, “An International Code-2010 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII,” 2010.

[10] F. Vakili-tahami, S. S. Sharifi, P. Majnoun, and A. Abbasi, “Calculating the Creep Life of Rotating Cylindrical Pressure Vessels by Reference Stress Method ( RSM ),” pp. 1–18, 2015.
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Failure Analysis of Hexagonal Headed Screw to Clamp Orthodontic Clip

[Pranit DholeSaurabh KhaireMachindra AdsulGaurav Bhor] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp  99 - 105

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190416

Abstract The human teeth function is that to mechanically breakdown items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digesting. Tooth Development is complex process by which the teeth form from embryonic cells, grow into mouth. By significant amount of research in this field, it is widely accepted that there is most of factor within tissues that is necessary for development of teeth. Orthodontic dental implants have become a widely accepted treatment option for both partially and completely for lack amount of teeth’s in patients’ mouth. The clinical use of miniscrew anchorage includes some risks. Screw fracture might be one of the most undesirable side effects in clinical use of miniscrew anchorage. Orthodontic Implant Screw of Organization S.K. Surgical is undergoing failure at time of insertion. Failure of Implant Screw in jaw of patient is causing major problems like surgery for removal, long healing period of jaw, time and money wastage, loss of Reputation.
Index terms - Human Teeth, Tooth Development Process, Miniscrew Anchorage, Failure of Implant Screw
[1] J Kannaperuman, Gowri Natarajarathinam , Adith Venugopal , “Microimplants for a orthodontic anchorage: a review”, Int. Journal of Contemporary Dentistry, Volume 4 (3), April 2013.
[2] Flávia Mitiko Fernandes Kitahara-Céia1, Tatiana Féres Assad-Loss, José Nelson Mucha, Carlos Nelson Elias, “Morphological evaluation of the active tip of six types of orthodontic mini-implants”, Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, vol.18 no.2 Maringá Mar./Apr. 2013.
[3] Ajinkya Patil, Ameet V Revankar, “Evaluation of micro implant use in orthodontic practices in India : An opinion-based survey”, 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1103.
[4] Dr Jeevan M. Khatri, Dr. Saba Anjum Siddiqui, Dr. Gaurav Tated, “Failure of mini implants in orthodontics – A literature review”, IJAMSCR, Volume 4, Issue 4, Oct –Dec 2016.
[5] Dr. Bhumika.Ramchandra.Mute, Dr. Kalpak. Prafulla. Peter, Dr. Suchita Daokar., “Orthodontics Implants in Orthodontics- A New Paradigm”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861. Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep.- Oct. 2013), PP 78-84.
[6] Neal D. Kravitza and Budi Kusnotob, “Risks and complications of orthodontic miniscrews”, Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007 Apr;131(4 Suppl):S43-51..
[7]  Yan Chen,a Hee Moon Kyung,b Wen Ting Zhao,c and Won Jae Yud, “Critical factors for the success of orthodontic mini-implants: A systematic review” Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009 Mar;135(3):284-91.
[8] Maria Vittoria Diamantii, Barbara Del Curtol, Alberto Barlattani, Patrizio Bollero Liliana Ottria Mariapia Pedeferrii, “Mechanical characterization of an innovative dental implant system”, Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics 2009; Vol. 7 no. 1: 23-28.
[9] Zsuzsanna Gurdán D.M.D, “In vitro study of insertion parameters of orthodontic mini implants and a retrospective clinical study of their success rates” Ph.D Thesis Summary.
[10] Paula V.P. Oltramari-Navarro a,*, Ricardo L. Navarro a, Jose´ Fernando C. Henriques,Taˆ nia M. Cestari b, Carlos E. Francischone b, Rumio Taga b, James A. McNamara Jr.c .“The impact of healing time before loading on orthodontic mini-implant stability: A histomorphometric study in minipigs” archives of oral biology 58 ( 2013 ) 806 – 812
[11] Fatma Deniz Uzuner and Belma Işık Aslan, “Miniscrew Applications in Orthodontics”, Chapter · February 2015 DOI: 10.5772/59879
[12]  Irfan Qamaruddina, Mohsin Nazirb, Mohammad Taimur Khalidc, Mashaal Alamd, Fazal Shahide, “Factors that contribute to the failure of orthodontic mini-implants: A literature review”, Review Article POJ 2010:2(2) 76-81.

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Design and Fabrication of Pneumatic Operated Juice Extract Machine

[S. D. Bhalekar, Akshay Dalwai, Tukaram Dalavi, Tushar Dahale, Abhishek Birajdar] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp  106 - 109

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190407

Abstract A juice extractor machine is develop for an extracting a juice from the fruit as well as vegetable. Machine is develop to minimize the human effort and improving the performance of product. The machine is to be operated with an minimum manual interaction and avoid complexity. The process is to be continuous and juice extracted without any toxicity. The convectional machine operated with manually having more uncomfortable for an operator. The juice is collected without any wastage and seeds. The machine is to be constructed with an automation which is helpful to improve efficiency. the electric supply is to be needed for operate the is possible to run a machine for an high production rate with minimum duration of time which is highly impossible with old juice extractor. The development of the machine is required an electric motor and casting element such as hopper for feeding fruits and supporting the helical screw. The frame of the machine is fabricated with the help of mild steel.

Index terms - construction, extraction, fabrication, performance
[1] Karam Y. Maalawi and Mervat A. Badr, “Design Optimization of Mechanical Elements and Structures: a Review with Application”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research 5(2): 221-231,   INSInet Publication, 2009.
[2] Sylvester A. Aye, and Abugh Ashwe, Member, “Design and Construction of an Orange Juice Extractor”, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2012, Vol III WCE 2012, July 4 - 6, 2012, London, U.K.
[3] Aremu, Ademola. K. and Ogunlade, Clement A, “Development and Evaluation of a Multipurpose Juice Extractor”, New York Science Journal 2016 Volume 9(6).
[4] Flordeliza L. Mercado, Teresito G. Aguinaldo, Helen F. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan, “Medium-Scale Multi-Juice Extractor for Food Processing”, International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, Volume-5, Issue-1, Jan.-2017.
[5] Adekanye T. A., O. J. Adelakun, “Evaluation of a portable watermelon juice extracting machine”, AgricEngInt: CIGR Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2017.
[6] Ndubisi A. Aviara, Abubakar A. Lawal, Davou S. Nyam & Jesutofunmi Bamisaye, “Development and performance evaluation of a multi-fruit juice extractor”, Global Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Volume 2(2), 2013, pp 16-21.

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Review on Properties of Natural Hybrid Composites

[Mohammad Punawala, Mayur PatilShubham RautVivek Rathod,  A. N. Shaikh,  R. M. Deshmukh] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp  93 - 98

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190413

Abstract Due to environment and sustainability issues, there has been remarkable development in the natural fibre-based composites. There is increased in utilization of natural fibre to obtain high performance composite material. The challenge of working with the natural fibre-based composites is that they have large variation of physical as well as chemical properties by introducing synthetic fibre along with the natural fibre and by chemical treating the natural fibre there is been increment in the performance and characteristic of the natural hybrid composites. Also factors like fibre type, environmental condition, type of reinforcement used, source, type, structure, composition of the ply effects on the hybrid composite properties. Further the mechanical properties of natural hybrid composite have been discussed.

Index terms - natural fibre, hybrid composite, chemical treatment, tensile strength
[1] S. Nallusamy and Gautam Majumdar. “Effect of Stacking Sequence and Hybridization on Mechanical Properties of Jute-Glass Fiber Composites”. International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 12, No.3, May 2016, pp. 229-239.
[2] Raghavendra Gujjala, Shakuntala Ojha, SK Acharya, SK Pal. “Mechanical properties of woven jute–glass hybrid-reinforced epoxy composite”. Journal of Composite Materials.
[3] Andrzej K. Bledzki, Omar Faruk, Mohini Sain, Hans-Peter Fink. “Progress Report on Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites”, Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2014, 299, 9–26
[4] Madhu Puttegowda, Sanjay Mavinakere Rangappa, Mohammad Jawaid, Pradeep Shivanna, Yogesh Basavegowda and Naheed Saba.  “Potential of natural/synthetic hybrid composites for aerospace applications”. Elsevier Ltd 2018.
[5]  Khan MA, Hinrichsen G Mohanty AK, “Surface modification of jute and its influence on performance of biodegradable jute fabric/biopal composites”. Composites Science and Technology.
[6] Mäder E, Doan TTL, Gao SL.” Jute/polypropylene composites: Effect of matrix modification”. Composites Science and Technology.
[7]  Reboredo MM, Marcovich NE, Acha BA. “Creep and dynamic mechanical behavior of PP–jute composites: effect of the interfacial adhesion”. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing2007.
[8] Ahmad MA, Haque M, Zaman HU, Khan RA, Khan MA, Khan A, Huq T, Noor N Rahman KM, Rahman M, Huq D. “Preparation and mechanical characterization of jute reinforced polypropylene/ natural rubber composite”. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2010.
[9] Vijayarangan S, Sabeel Ahmed K, Naidu ACB. “Elastic properties, notched strength and fracture criterion in untreated woven jute–glass fabric reinforced polyester hybrid composites”. Materials and Design 2007.
[10] Benjamin Bax, Jörg Müssig. “Impact and tensile properties of PLA/Cordenka and PLA/flax composites”. Composites Science and Technology, Elsevier, 2009, 68 (7-8), pp.1601.
[11] Yongli Zhang, Yan Li, Hao Ma, Tao Yu. “Tensile and interfacial properties of unidirectional flax/glass fibre reinforced hybrid composites”. Composites Science and Technology 88 (2013) 172–177.
[12]  V Fiore, A Valenza, G Di Bella.” Mechanical behavior of carbon/flax hybrid composites for structural applications”. Journal of Composite Materials 46(17).
[13] Kulinski Z, Pracella M, Anguillesi I, Chionna D, Piorkowska E. “Functionalization, compatibilization and properties of polypropylene composites with hemp fibres”. Composites Science and Technology 2006.
[14] Liu Q, Hughes M, McCall RD, Stuart T, Sharma HSS, Norton A. “Structural bio composites from flax: Effect of bio-technical fibre modification on composite properties”. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2006.
[15] De Coster A, Van de Weyenberg I, Kino B, Ivens J, Baetens E, Verpoest I.  “Influence of processing and chemical treatment of flax fibre on their composites”. Composites Science and Technology 2003.
[16] L. Torre, C. Santulli, D. Puglia, R. Petrucci, F. Sarasini, J.M. Kenny. “Mechanical characterisation of hybrid composite laminates based on basalt fibres in combination with flax, hemp and glass fibres manufactured by vacuum infusion”. Materials and Design 49 (2013) 728–735.
[17] Asim Shahzad. “Impact and fatigue properties of hemp–glass fibre hybrid bio composites”. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2011.
[18] Bourmaud A, Baley C. “Rigidity analysis of polypropylene/vegetal fibre composites after recycling”. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2009.
[19] Bruce DM, Hepworth DG, Farrent JW, Hobson RN. “The use of unretted hemp fibre in composite manufacture”. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing ,31:1279–83.
[20] Menut P, Guilbert S, Morel MH, Kunanopparat T. “Reinforcement of plasticized wheat gluten with natural fibres: from mechanical improvement to deplasticizing effect”. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2008.
[21] M.A. Malequea, M. Iqbalca., M. Jawaid, A. Atiqah. “Development of kenaf-glass reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite for structural applications”. Composites: Part B 56 (2014) 68–7369.
[22] N. Venkateshwaren, N. Rajinia, S. Karthikeyana, A. Alavudeena, M. Thiruchitrambalam, “Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fibre-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: Effect of woven fabric and random orientation”. Materials and Design 66 (2015) 246–257.
[23] Horstemeyer MF, Pittman Jr CU, Du Y, Xue Y, Zhang J, Lacy Jr TE, Toghiani H, “Kenaf bast fibre bundle-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. III: Statistical strength characteristics and cost–performance analyses”. Forest Products Journal 2010,60:514–21.
[24] Thiruchitrambalam, A. ElayaPerumal, A. Alavudeen, M. N. Venkateshwaran. “Mechanical and water absorption behavior of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites”. Materials and Design 32 (2011) 4017–4021.
[25]  K. Palanikumarb, M. Ramesha, K. Hemachandra Reddy. “Comparative Evaluation on Properties of Hybrid Glass Fibre- Sisal/Jute Reinforced Epoxy Composites”. Procedia Engineering   51 (2013) 745 – 750.
[26] Towo AN, Ansell MP. “Fatigue of sisal fibre reinforced composites: constant-life diagrams and hysteresis loop capture”. Composites Science and Technology 2008; 68:915–24.
[27] S. Junaid Kokan, B. Vijaya Ramanathan, R. Niranjan Raja, C. Elanchezhian, R. Sathyanarayanan, A. Rajendra Prasad, V.M. Manickavasagam. “Evaluation of mechanical properties of abaca–jute–glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite”. materials and Design 51 (2013) 357–366.
[28]  Gurunathan T, Mohanty S, Sanjay Nayak K. A review of the recent developments in bio composites based on natural fibres and their application perspectives. Composite A: Application Sci Manufacturing 2015,77:1—25.
[29]  I, Baharum, Ahmad, A and Abdullah, I, “Effect of Extrusion Rate and Fibre Loading on Mechanical Properties of Twaron Fibre-thermoplastic Natural Rubber (TPNR) composites”. Reinforced Plastics & Composites journal , 2006, Vol. 25, pp. 957-965.
[30] M. Jawaid, A. Abu Bakar, H.P.S. Abdul Khalil, P. Noorunnisa Khanam. “Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites”. Materials and Design 32 (2011) 1014–1019.
[31]  Lopez Manchando, Marc Arroya, Jose Kenny, J. Biagiotti “Enhancement of Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Adhesion of PP/EPDM/Flax Fibre Composites Using Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer”, Journal of Applied Polymer Sci, Vol. 90, pp. 2170.
[32] B.S., Rana, A., Panigrahy, P. and Panigrahi, Chang, “Overview of Flax Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites”. Canadian Biosystems Engineering Journal, 06-165, pp. 1-12.
[33] LaythMohammed, M. N. Ansari, Grace Pua, Saiful Islam, Mohammad Jawaid. “A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications”. Int Journal of Polymer Sci Volume 2015.

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Vibration Analysis for Bending of Vertical Plates in PVC Scrap Filtration Machine

[Rushikesh Salunkhe, Shriram SonawaneShardul BhaleraoNikhil Salunkhe] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp  79 - 86

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190411

Abstract A PVC scrap filtration machine used in VIJAY PLASTIC, Solapur to filter PVC scrap in fine granual by vibrating a bed. The machine vibrates with its leg support i.e. vertical plate which is bend after some instances. This project more focus on static and dynamic analysis of vertical plates of PVC scrap filtration machine. It is necessary to study various loads acting on plates like weight of various components of body, load of PVC scrap which would add to per cycle and the buckling load. Buckling leads to a failure. When a structure is subjected to compressive stress, buckling may occur. It is characterized by a sudden sideways deflection of a structural member. The static load considered for force analysis is not responsible for bending which is calculated and hence it is required to experiment the model for vibration in dynamic body. With the help of ANSYS APDL 19., the stress values of plates due to force acting on plates is obtained and it is found to be safe. There is no any buckling or bending happen in steady condition. There is small deflection after action of compressive load. From static analysis result it can be concluded that buckling of plates occurs due to accelerating condition. So, the next step is dynamic analysis of vertical plate. The project has a great future scope as by investigating the amount of vibration into the system and with the help of dynamic calculation it can be find out the root causes of vibration so that the vibration can be eliminated to maximum extent and thus the life of the system may increase. The future scope of project is to find factors responsible for bending of vertical plate and to modify it as per necessary changes possible with the help of analytical, experimental and finite element analysis technique.

Index terms - Static analysis, Dynamic analysis, Vibration, Buckling, PVC scrap
[1]    Samer Adeeb et al- The effect of material stress-strain characteristics on the ultimate stress and critical buckling strain of flat plates subjected to uniform axial compression.” Construction and Building Materials 182(C) · June 2018
[2]    Frank H. Smith and Cristopher D. Moen- “Finite strip elastic buckling solutions for thin-walled metal columns with perforation patterns.” Thin walled structure, Volume 79, June 2014, Pages 187-201, Elsevier .
[3]    Juan A. Rivera et al- “Progressive failure analysis for thin-walled composite beams under fatigue loads.”  Composite Structure, volume 154,15 October 2016 pages 79-91, Elsevier.
[4]    Abdul-Jabbar   Abdy and M Hashemi – “Fatigue life improvement of steel structures using self-prestressing CFRP/SMA hybrid composite patches.” Engineering Structures, volume 174,1 November 2018 pages 358-372, Elsevier.
[5]    Ali Reza Pouladkhan et al- “Numerical Study of Buckling of Thin Plates.”  International journal of sustainable design and construction engineering Volume 78, May 2011.
[6]    Rekha M. Bhoi and L. G. Kalurkar- “Study of Buckling Behavior of Beam and Column.” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 3, Issue 11, November 2014
[7]    B. Sidda Reddy et al-Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory.”  Journal of composites, volume 2013, Article ID-808764.
[8]    Musa Bagbük et al-On Critical Buckling Loads of Columns under End Load Dependent on Direction.” International scholarly research notices, volume 2014, Article ID-531438.
[9]    Vahid Monfared-Analysis of Buckling Phenomenon under Different Loadings in Circular and Rectangular Plates.” volume 2012
[10]  YongchangYu, Shuaijun Zhang and He Li. “Modal and Harmonic response analysis of key components of ditch device based on ANSYS.” Procedia Engineering, volume 174,1 November 2017 pages 956-964, Elsevier.
[11]  Kwanghun Kim, Sok Kim, Chanil Pak.A “modelling analysis of cracked beam with arbitrary condition. Journal of ocean Engineering and science, Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages 367-381.
[12]  M Sadeghmanesh, H. Haddapour, M.T Abadi. “A Method for selection of structural theories for low to high vibrational analysis. European journal of mechanics, Volume 75, May–June 2019, Pages 27-40.
[13]  R. S. Khurmi and J. K. Gupta, “Theory of machines”,  S. Chand Publications, second edition, 2016.


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Thermal Performance of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe with Titanium Oxide as Nanofluid

[Sohan Sanjay MangidkarAbhishek Shivaji Shinde, Shivam Satish Deshmukh, Bharat Sunil Phalak] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp  87 - 92

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190412

Abstract Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) are heat transfer devices having thermo hydrodynamic coupling governing the internal performance. A wide range of necessary characterization has been done for the internal diameter, number of turns, working fluid, and inclination angle of the device. The working fluid employed is Titanium oxide nanofluid. Silver coating is done on Evaporator and Condenser section to improve the heat transfer rate. The objective of this experiment is to increase the heat transfer rate of CLPHP and to find out the thermal performance of CLPHP.

Index terms - Heat pipe, Nano Fluid, Titanium Oxide
[1]  HimelBarua*, Mohammad Ali, Md. Nuruzzaman, M. Quamrul Islam, “Effect of filling ratio on heat transfer characteristics and performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe”, Procedia Engineering 56 (2013) 88 – 95,  2013.
[2]  Xiangdong Liu, Youngping Chen, Mingheng Shi “Dynamic performance analysis on start-up of closed-loop pulsating heat pipes(CLPHP)”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 65 (2013) 224e233, 15 October 2012
[3]   Saiyan Shi, Xiaoyu Cui, Hua Han, Jianhua Weng, Zhihua Li, “A study of the heat transfer performance of a pulsating heat pipe with ethanol-based mixtures”, Applied Thermal Engineering 102 (2016) 1219–1227, 3 April 2016.
[4]   AkterJahan*, Mohammad Ali, Md.Quamrul Islam “Effect of inclination angles on heat transfer characteristics of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP)”, Procedia Engineering 56 ( 2013 ) 82 – 87, 5th BSME International Conference on Thermal Engineering, 2013.
[5]   Pramod R. Pachghare and Ashish M. Mahalle “Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 28 (8) (2014) 3387-3394, 21 March 2014.
[6]   Mauro Mamelia, Vincenzo Manno , SauroFilippeschi , Marco Mareng “Thermal instability of a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe: Combined effect of orientation and filling ratio”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 75 (2014) 140e152, 23 July 2014.
[7]   Pramod R. Pachghare ,Ashish M. Mahalle “Effect of pure and binary fluids on closed loop pulsating heat pipe thermal performance”, Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 624 – 629, 2012.
[8]   Yu Wang “Experimental investigations on operating characteristics of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe”, Front. Energy 2015, 9(2): 134–141, 12 June 2015.
[9]   Xiaoyu , Cui ZiqianQiu, JianhuaWeng ,ZhihuaLi“Heat transfer performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipes with methanol-based binary mixtures”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 76 (2016) 253–263, 6 April 2016 (13)
[10]D. A. Chavan* and V. M. Kale “Understanding Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe: An Experimental Study”, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN 2277 – 4106, 15 June 2016.
[11]Sameer Khandekar, “Closed and open loop pulsating heat pipe”, 13th International Heat Pipe Conference (13th IHPC), Shanghai, China,September 21-25, 2004.
[12]Pankaj Sharma, Il-Hyun Baek, Taehyun Cho, Sangdo Park, Ki Bong Lee “Enhancement Of Thermal Conductivity Of Ethylene Glycol Based Silver Nanofluids”, Powder Technology 208 (2011) 7–19, 23 November 2010
[13]X. Wang, X. Xu, and S.U.S. Choi, J. “Silver Nanofluids - Synthesis, Properties an Application”, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 2347 – 5161, June 2016
[14]Ahmet Ozsoy, Vahit Corumlu, “Thermal performance of a thermosyphon heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector using silver-water nanofluid for commercial applications”, Renewable Energy 122 (2018) 26e34, 28 December 2017.

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