Parametric Optimization of Friction Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6351 and Steel 304

Prashant R. Shinde and A. D. Diwate 

Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering

Volume 1: Issue 1, Aug 2020, pp 

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Author's Information
Prashant R. Shinde1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
shindeprashant468@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – Aug 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Prashant R. Shinde and A. D. Diwate, “Parametric Optimization of Friction Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6351 and Steel 304”, Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering, RAME Publishers, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. **-**, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/jpie.1.1.20200607

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Abstract -  In friction welding, the joints are formed in the solid-state by utilizing the heat generated by friction. The aim of this investigation is getting friction weld component of Aluminum 6351, steel 304 and enhancing the friction welding parameters so as to build up the weld quality. This paper examines the use of the Taguchi experiment design strategy for augmenting tensile strength of friction welding Al (6351) and steel 304. A symmetrical exhibit of L9 was; Using ANOVA and signal to noise ratio of critical analysis, the impact of the rigidity of friction welding process boundary (Rotational speed, forging force, time) is assessed and ideal welding condition for maximizing tensile strength is resolved and furthermore NDT (Radiography test) testing to gauge the progression of the weld joint. 

Index terms - Friction Welding, Stainless Steel, Aluminum, Tensile Strength, Optimization by Taguchi methodology, ANOVA
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REFERENCES
[1] Prof. Dr. Wim De Waele, Prof. Dr.Patrick De Baets “Joining of dissimilar materials through rotary friction” Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architecture.

[2] Shubhavardhan RN1, Surendran S2, “Friction Welding to Join Dissimilar Metals” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing engineering. (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 7,2017)

[3] Mümin Sahin “Friction welding of different materials” INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 19–20 November 2010, GABROVO.

[4] Mumin Sahin and Cenk Misirli “mechanical and metalurgical properties of friction welded aluminium joints.

[5] Hazman Seli, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismailb, Endri Rachmanc, Zainal Arifin Ahmadd “Mechanical evaluation and thermal modelling of friction welding of mild steel and aluminium” Journal of Materials Processing Technology.

[6] Soren Bisgaard “Process optimization going beyond Taguchi Methods” National thermal spray conference in long beach, colifonia.May 25, 2018.

[7] V.I., Friction Welding of Metals, AWS, Newyork.

[8] T. W. Simpson “IE 466: Concurrent Engineering” Integrated Product and Process Design, McGraw Hill, New York, 2018.

[9] C.Vidala, V. Infante1, B, P. Pecas1, C,P.Vilaca1“ application of taguchi method in the optimization of friction stir welding parameters of an aeronautic aluminum alloy” Institute Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1096-001 Lisboa, Portugal.

[10] Shyam Kumar Karna1, Dr. Ran Vijay Singh2, Dr. Rajeshwar Sahai3” Application of Taguchi Method in Indian Industry” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2018).

[11] L. FU, L. Y. DUAN, and S. G. DU are with Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi’an, China.” Numerical Simulation of Inertia Friction Welding Process by Finite Element Method”

[12] Emel Taban a,*, Jerry E. Gould b, John C. Lippold c “Dissimilar friction welding of 6061-T6 aluminum and AISI 1018 steel: Properties and microstructural characterization” Materials and Design 31 (2017) 2305–2311.

[13] SHUBHAVARDHAN R.N & SURENDRAN S “Friction welding to join stainless steel and aluminum materials” International Journal of Metallurgical & Materials Science and Engineering (IJMMSE) ISSN 2278-2516Vol.2, Issue 3 Sep 2012 53-73.

[14] Eder Paduan Alves a, Francisco Piorino Neto,” Welding of AA1050 aluminum with    AISI    304    stainless    steel    by    rotary    friction welding   process”

[15] S. Kamaruddin, Zahid A. Khan and S. H. Foong “Application of Taguchi Method in the Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for Manufacturing Products from Plastic Blend” IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, No.6, December 2010 ISSN: 1793-8236

[16] M.N. Ahmad Fauzi *, M.B. Uday, H. Zuhailawati, A.B. Ismail “Microstructure and mechanical properties of alumina-6061 aluminum alloy joined by friction welding” Materials and Design 31 (2010) 670–676

[17] Hakan Aydin, Ali Bayram, Ugur Esme*, Yigit Kazancoglu, Onur Guven “application of grey relation analysis (gra) and taguchi method for the parametric optimization of friction stir welding (fsw) process” UDK 621.791:669.715 ISSN 1580- 2949 Original scientific article/Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek MTAEC9, 44(4)205(2010)

[18] T1 Calvin Blignault, B. Tech. Mech. Eng.” Design, Development and Analysis of the Friction Stir Welding Process” D. G. Hattingh Friday, 13 December 2002

[19] Khurrum S Bhutta “taguchi approach to design of experiments” Department of Information Systems, Box 2042, College of Business Administration, Nicholls State University, Thibodaux, LA 70310, Tel: (985) 448 4246.

[20] Yong-Jai KWON Seong-Beom SHIM2, Dong-Hwan PARK2 “Friction stir welding of 5052 aluminum alloy plates” science press Received 2 March 2009; accepted 30 May 2009.

[21] S. Senthil Kumaran · S. Muthukumaran · S. Vinodh “Optimization of friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool” Struct Multidisc Optim (2010) 42:449–457 DOI 10.1007/s00158-010-0509-7

[22] Shyam Kumar Karna1, Dr. Ran Vijay Singh2, Dr. Rajeshwar Sahai “Application of Taguchi Method in Indian Industry” International Journal of Emerging Technology and  Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)
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Analysis and Optimization of EDM Process Parameters using Taguchi Method for AISI 304

Shraddha A Bugade and A. D. Diwate 

Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering

Volume 1: Issue 1, Aug 2020, pp 

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Author's Information
Shraddha A. Bugade1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
shraddha96bugade@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – Aug 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Shraddha A. Bugade and A. D. Diwate, “Analysis and Optimization of EDM Process Parameters using Taguchi Method for AISI 304”, Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering, RAME Publishers, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. **-**, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/jpie.1.1.20200606

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Abstract - Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most important Non-conventional machining processes. Voltage (V), Spark on time (Ton), Discharge current (Ip) are important process parameters in this technique. The values of these parameters significantly affect such machining outputs as the material removal rate.
In this dissertation work, a three-dimensional thermo-physical model for the electrical discharge machining was developed using ANSYS software and experiment have been conducted on die-sinking EDM using AISI 304 as a workpiece to investigate the effect of most significant machining parameters. For that L9 orthogonal array was developed, and material removal rate (MRR) for AISI 304 was measured for every experimental run. For validation purposes, parametric analysis using ANSYS has been conducted to predict the MRR. To find out the regression equation and optimum process parameters mathematical modeling of MRR has been carried out using MINITAB software. 

Index terms - Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Spark on time, Current, Voltage, Tensile test, Material Removal Rate(MRR)  
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REFERENCES
[1] Singh, P.N., Raghukandan, K., Rathinasabapathi, M. And Pai, B.C., 2004. “Electric discharge machining of Al-10%sicp as-cast metal matrix composites.” Journal of materials processing technology, 155-156(1-3), 1653-1657.

[2] Lin, y., Cheng, C., Su, B. and Hwang, L., 2006.” Machining characteristics and optimization of machining parameters of SKH 57 high-speed steel using electrical-discharge machining based on Taguchi method”. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 21(8), 922-929.

[3]. Mohan, B., Rajadurai, A. and Satyanarayana, K.G., 2002. “Effect of sic and rotation of electrode on electric discharge machining of Al-sic composite.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 124(3), 297-304.

[4]. Dhar, s., Purohit, r., Saini, n., Sharma, a. and Kumar, G.H., 2007. “Mathematical modeling of electric discharge machining of cast Al-4Cu-6Si alloy-10 wt.% sicp composites.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 193(1-3), 24-29.

[5] Habib, S. S. (2009). “Study of the parameters in electrical discharge machining through response surface methodology approach.” Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33(12), 4397-4407.

[6] J.S. Soni, G. Chakraverti, ”Machining characteristics of titanium with rotary electro-discharge machinng” (1994) Wear 171, pp.51-58.

[7] K. R. Thangadurai, A. Asha, “Mathematical Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining Process of AA 6061 - 10%B4Cp MMC through Response Surface Methodology.” European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.81 No.4 (2012), pp.476-492

[8] Ashok Kumar,kuldeep Singh Bedi,Karaj Singh Dhillo, Rashpal Singh, “Experimental Investigation of Machine parameters For EDM Using U shaped electrode of EN-19 tool steel.” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA). Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp.1674-1684

[9] Karthikeyan R, Lakshmi Narayanan, P.R. and Naagarazan, R.S., 1999. “Mathematical modeling for electric discharge machining of aluminium-silicon carbide  particulate composites.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 87(1-3), 59-63.


[10] Tae-Gon Kim,  Dong-Kil Kim “Finite Element Analysis Of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Process.” School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.(2006).
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Process Parameter Optimization of Sheet Metal Arc Welding of AISI 1020 Mild Steel

Amol B. Rajbhoj and A. D. Diwate 

Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering

Volume 1: Issue 1, Aug 2020, pp 

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Author's Information
Amol B. Rajbhoj1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
amolrajbhoj83@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – Aug 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Amol B. Rajbhoj and A. D. Diwate, “Process Parameter Optimization of Sheet Metal Arc Welding of AISI 1020 Mild Steel”, Journal of Production and Industrial Engineering, RAME Publishers, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. **-**, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/jpie.1.1.20200605

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Abstract - Sheet Metal Arc welding is also known as Manual Metal Arc welding (SMAW/MMAW), is an advance arc welding process become a popular choice when a high level of weld quality or considerable precision welding is required. However, the serious issues of SMAW welding process are its moderate welding speed and constrained to lower thickness material in a single pass. In this work, autogenously SMAW welding has been performed on 12 mm diameter AISI 1020 mild steel rod without utilizing any filler material. Wide scope of welding current and scan speed has been tried for getting a full penetration welding. Activated flux has additionally been utilized to improve the weld depth. In the wake of performing welding by keeping up various gap between the bars to be welded, weld bead geometry and tensile strength of the weld has been researched. It is seen that, by keeping up a proper gap full infiltration welding of rod is conceivable which invigorates practically like base material. 

Index terms - Sheet Metal Arc welding, Activated flux, Current, Voltage , Tensile test, Hardness test and A - SMA welding process  
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REFERENCES
[1] Sukhomay Pal, Santosh K. Malviya, Surjya K. Pal &Arun K. Samantaray, “Optimization of quality characteristics parameters in a pulsed metal inert gaswelding process using grey-based Taguchi method,” IntJ AdvManufTechnol (2009)44:1250–1260, DOI10.1007/s00170-009-1931-0.

[2] K.Y. Benyounis and A.G. Olabi, “Optimization ofdifferent welding processes using statistical andnumerical approaches – A reference guide,” Advancesin Engineering Software 39 (2008) 483–496.

[3] A. Kumar and S. Sundarrajan, “Optimization of pulsedTIG welding process parameters on mechanicalproperties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments,”Materials and Design 30 (2009) 1288–1297.

[4] P. Srinivasa Rao, O. P. Gupta, S. S. N. Murty and A. B.Koteswara Rao, “Effect of process parameters andmathematical model for the prediction of beadgeometry in pulsed GMA welding,” Int J AdvManufTechnol (2009) 45:496–505, DOI 10.1007/s00170-009-1991-1.

[5] Saurav Datta, Asish Bandyopadhyay and Pradip Kumar Pal, “Modeling and optimization of features of beadgeometry including percentage dilution in submergedarc welding using mixture of fresh flux and fused slag,”Int J AdvManufTechnol (2008) 36:1080–1090, DOI10.1007/s00170-006-0917-4.

[6] Ching-Been Yang, Chyn-Shu Deng and Hsiu-LuChiang, “Combining the Taguchi method with artificialneural network to construct a prediction model of aCO2 laser cutting experiment,” Int J AdvManufTechnol (2012) 59:1103–1111, DOI 10.1007/s00170-011-3557-2.

[7] Vikas Mukhraiya, Raj Kumar Yadav, Sanjay Jathar, “Parametric Optimisation of MIG Welding Process with the Help of Taguchi Method” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT),2014, Vol 3, pp 1407-1410.

[8] K. Sivasakthivel, K. Janarthanan, R. Rajkumar, Optimization of Welding Parameter In MIG Welding by Taguchi Method, International Journal of Advanced Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJARMET), 2015, Vol.1. pp 36-40

[9] Rakesh Kumar1, and Gurinder Singh Brar, “Optimization of Process Parameters for MIG Welding by Taguchi Method”, International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), 2017, Vol. 6, pp. 756-768.

[10] Sahil Garg, Nitin Bhati, Chandra Vikram Singh, Dr. Satpal Sharma, Application of Taguchi Method to Determine MIG Welding Parameters for AISI 1020, Mechanical Engineering Department ADR Journals 2015.


[11] Satyaduttsinh P. Chavda, Jayesh V.Desai, Tushar M.Patel “A Review on Optimization of MIG Welding Parameters using Taguchi’s DOE Method”, International Journal of Engineering and Management Research,2014, Vol. 4. Pp. 16-21.
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Design and Finite Element Analysis of Differential Cover for Rear Drive axle of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)

Nikita Duble and A. D. Diwate 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp  53-60

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Author's Information
Nikita Duble1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
nikitaduble.duble@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Nikita Duble and A. D. Diwate, “Design and Finite Element Analysis of Differential Cover for Rear Drive axle of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 53-60, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200612

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Abstract - This work is intended to design differential cover based on existing cover. The cover is checked for structural stability by performing finite element analysis. Earlier observed issues like premature cover failure, bolt loosening (carrier to cover) and oil leakage from cover mating surface are rectified through finite element analysis. This is done by performing multiple FEA iterations by changing wall thickness, size of hole and number of holes. Fatigue life of differential cover obtained by finite element method is validated by experimental method. The model chose is that of a light commercial vehicle which has a gross axle weight rating 1050 kg. The cover material is SAPH 440 (Steel Automotive Pickled Hot-rolled and 440 MPa minimum tensile strength). 

Index terms - Differential cover, Drive axle, Gross axle weight rating 
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REFERENCES
[1] Sivasakthi D, R. Prabhu, “Tractor Rear Axle Casing”, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Volume 5, Issue IV, April 2017.

[2] Siddarth Dey, P.R.V.V.V Sri Rama Chandra Murthy. D, P.Baskar . "Structural Analysis of Front axle beam of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V11(5), pp. 208-213, May 2014.

[3] Lalit Kumar, Chandrakant Singh, Bhumesh Kumar Dewangan, Prakash Kumar Sen, Shailendra Kumar Bohidar, “Study on the Front Axle and Rear Axle Attached to Differential System”, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2014.
[4] Lu, S. K., Su, J. H., Liao, S. D., Su, J. Q., Wang, B., Yu, L., Jiang, Y. L., & Wen, S. H., “Finite Element Analysis on Fatigue Failure Prediction of a Rear Axle Housing of Vehicle Based on Cosmos”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 121–126, 843–847, 2011.

[5] Wu Zhijun, Zhang Lihua, “Optimal Design for Rear Drive Axle House Based on Fuzzy Reliability Robust Analysis”, International Conference on Chemical, Material and Food Engineering (CMFE-2015), Atlantic Press, pp. 875 - 880, 2015.
[6] Amol A. Sangule, Prof. Dalwe D.M., “A Review on Modeling and Analysis of Front Axle of Alto Maruti-800 LMV Car for Weight Reduction”, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Volume 7, Issue IV, Apr 2019.

[7] Pravin R.Ahire, Prof. K. H. Munde, “Design and analysis of front axle for heavy commercial vehicle”, International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science, Volume 5 Issues 7 July 2016, Page No. 17333-17337.

[8] Chetan D. Papat, Idris Poonawala, S.M.Gaikwad, “Design of axle housing bolted joint by analytical method”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 4 Ver. VI, Jul- Aug. 2014, PP 55-60.

[9] Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohd Syamil Tajuddin, Mohd Nurhidayat Zahelem, “Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear Axle Housing by using Finite Elements Analysis”, The International Journal of Engineering and Science, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 53-61, 2014.
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Design Optimization of Foldable Hangar Door for Naval Ships

Abhijeet S. Daule and A. D. Diwate 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp 45 - 52  

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Author's Information
Abhishek S. Daule1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
abhijeet.daule@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Abhishek S. Daule and Prof. A. D. Diwate, “Design Optimization of Foldable Hangar Door for Naval Ships”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 45-52, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200608

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Abstract - After landing of helicopter on the deck of naval ship, it is to be protected from the sea atmospheric condition. For this purpose, a parking area is available on the deck of ship. The aft end of helicopter is enclosed in the hangar on deck of ship with the help of Foldable Hangar Door system. It is two door panel system which are foldable hanging type at the hinges at the top of hangar. The purpose of this system is only for proper movement of helicopter and its protection from different sea states conditions. In this project, after studying the available Foldable Hangar Door, different site issues related to the reliability of system are observed and that are tried to overcome by providing alternate possibilities as well as design optimization of system is done for the improvement of performance of system. In this project the issues which were causing difficulties are modified with new design and with some alternate solutions. The new system of Foldable Hangar Door is modeled and designed with performing the analysis of the new alternate possible solutions and are compared with the old design system in each aspect including weight of system, the performance of system etc. The system is also analyzed for different loading condition including sea atmospheric conditions are compared with the old design and found to be performing well. Hence new design approach of the system is further proceeded for the approval of customer where it will be validated for the specified system operating condition which are already specified by them while doing the designing. 

Index terms - Foldable Hangar Door (FHD), Top Lock Pin, Top Lock Assembly, ALJO Door, MAFO Door, Primary Assembly, Secondary Assembly.
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REFERENCES
[1] A. P Mouritz, E Gellert, P Burchill and K Challis, Review of advanced composite structures for naval ships and submarines”, Composite Structures, Volume 53, Issue 1, July 2001, pp. 21–42.

[2] Garlock Ltd., “Sealing technology R&D facility opens its doors to design engineers”, Sealing Technology, Volume 2003, Issue 10, October 2003, Pages 4.

[3] “Statement of Technical Report”, Larsen & Toubro.

[4] ALJO-Foldable Hangar Door

[5] Schweiss Hydraulic Bi-Fold Hangar Door



[8] Ro-Ro External / Internal Top Hinge Hangar Door

[9] Well-bilt Bi-Foldable Hangar Door

[10] F. C. Campbell, “Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys”, ASM International, 2008.
[11] Shih-Bin Wang and Chih-Fu Wu, “Design of the force measuring system for the hinged door: Analysis of the required operating torque”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 49, September 2015, Pages 1–10.

[12] Larsen & Toubro Training Material

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