Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Finishing Milling of Hardox 400 Steel

[Fuat KARA] Volume 5: Issue 3, October 2018, pp 44-49 

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.3.5.20180901

Abstract - In this study, it was performed to optimization of cutting parameters in finishing milling of Hardox 400 steel with PVD TiAlN+TiN coated carbide inserts. Milling experiments were made according to Taguchi L16 orthogonal array. The evaluation of the experimental results was based on the signal/noise (S/N) ratio. Control factors that given optimum surface roughness values were determined by using the Taguchi method. Two different cutting speeds (60 and 120 m/min) and cooling method (dry and wet) as control factors was selected. In addition, depth of cut and feed rate were taken as 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm/rev, respectively. The effect levels on the surface roughness of the control factors with analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed using the experimental results were determined. The Taguchi analysis found the optimum results for surface roughness to be with the cutting speed of 120 m/min and cooling method of wet.

Index terms - Finishing milling, Hardox 400, Taguchi method, surface roughness
[1] J. Majerik and J. Jambor,―Hard milling and hard drilling experiment of abrasion resistant steel Hardox 500 at dependence of T = f (vc, fz),‖Univ Rev.,vol. 8(3-4), pp. 2-8, 2014.

[2] J.Majerik and I. Barenyi, ‗Experimental investigation into tool wear of cemented carbide cutting inserts when machining wear resistant steel Hardox 500,‖Eng Rev.,vol. 36(2),pp. 167-174, 2016.

[3] G. Taguchi, S. Chowdhury and Y. Wu, ‗Taguchi's Quality Engineering Handbook‘John Wiley & Sons Inc.: New Jersey, USA, ISBN: 978-0-471-41334-9, 2005.

[4] M. Karabatak and F. Kara, ―Experimental optimization of surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel,‖J Polytech.,vol. 19(3), pp. 349-355, 2016.

[5] N. AltanÖzbek,―The Investigation of the Effects of Cryogenic Treatment Applied to Cutting Tools on Tool Life in Machining AISI 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel,‖ Ph.D. Thesis, Gazi University Institute of Sciences, 2013.

[6] F. Kara, ―Optimization of surface roughness in finish milling of AISI P20+ S plastic-mold steel,‖ Mater Technol., vol. 52(2), pp. 195–200, 2018.

[7] F. Kara, ―Taguchi optimization of surface roughness and flank wear during the turning of DIN 1.2344 tool steel,‖Mater Test.,vol. 59(10), pp. 903-908, 2017.

[8] E. Nas and B. Öztürk, ―Optimization of surface roughness via the Taguchi method and investigation of energy consumption when milling spheroidal graphite cast iron materials,‖Mater Test.,vol60(5), pp. 519-525. 2018.

[9] F. Kara and B. Öztürk, ―Comparison and optimization of PVD and CVD method on surface roughness and flank wear in hard-machining of DIN 1.2738 mold steel,‖Sensor Rev.,https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-12-2017-0266, in press, 2019.

[10] E. Yücel and M. Günay, ―Modelling and optimization of the cutting conditions in hard turning of high-alloy white cast iron (Ni-Hard),‖Proc Inst MechEng Part C: J MechEng Sci.,vol. 227(10), pp. 2280-2290, 2013.

[11] O.Özbek and N. AltanÖzbek, ―Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for surface roughness in turning of hardened AISI 4140 steel,‖J AdvTechnol Sci.,vol. 5(3), pp. 41-48, 2016.

[12] E. Yücel and H. Saruhan,―Design optimization of rotor-bearing system considering critical speed using Taguchi method,‖Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: J Process Mech Eng., vol. 231(2), pp. 138-146, 2017.

Read More »

Investigation of Electric Field Distribution of A Transformer Using Moving Finite Element Method

[Mehmet ÇINARİrfan ÖKTEN] Volume 5: Issue 2, June 2018, pp 36-43 

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.5.20180602

Abstract - The one of the commonly used methods for solution of partial differential equations is the finite element method. Solution area for the differential equation to be solved in this method; are divided into a number of sub-regions called simple , small , interconnected , finite elements.However , especially in time-dependent partial differential equations, analysis is performed using the moving finite element method instead of the classical finite element method where the solution network changes locally; both faster and more accurate.In this work, moving finite element method is considered. The details of how the original variation on the solution network for he moving finite element method and the monitor function selection, which is an important factor in these changes, are detailed in the two-dimensional case. As application, C ++ based software is implemented and analyzed the transformer’s electric area distribution according to the state of the classical and moving finite elements and the results are compared.
Index terms - Mesh Generation , Finite Element Method, Moving Finite Element
[1] Mehmet Aydın, Beno Kuryel, Gönül Gündüz, Galip Oturanç, 2001,” Diferansiyel Denklemler ve Uygulamaları”,İzmir.

[2] Thomas R. Hughes , 2000, “The Finite Element Method Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Method”, Dover Publications, New York

[3] R. Rannacher, 2001, ”Adaptive Galerkin Finite Element Methods for Partial Differential Equations”, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 128, 205-233.

[4] J.N. Reddy, 1993, An Introduction to Finite Element Method, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill International Editions , New York.

[5] Susan Brenner 2002, “ The Mathematical Theory of Finite Element Method”, Springer Verlag Press Berlin.

[6] Weiming Cao, Weizhang Huang, Robert D. Rusell, 1998, ”An r-Adaptive Finite Element Method Based Upon Moving Mesh PDEs” ,Journal of Computational Physiscs, 149, pp: 221-244.

[7] Weiming Cao, Weizhang Huang, Robert D. Rusell, 1998, ”An r-Adaptive Finite Element Method Based Upon Moving Mesh PDEs” ,Journal of Computational Physiscs, 149, pp: 221-244.

[8] Weiming Cao, Weizhang Huang, Robert D. Rusell,1994, “A Study Of Monitor Functions For Two-Dıemensional Adaptive Mesh Generation”, SIAM J. SCI.Computer, Vol:20 No: 6, pp: 1978-1994.

[9] Miller K, Miller R.N, 1981, “Moving Finite Elements:Part 1”, SIAM J.Numer Anal 18: 1019-1052.

[10] Jimack P,1988 a, “High order moving finite elements II”, Report number AM-88-03 School of Mahtematics,University of Bristol,U.K

[11] Johnson, I.W,Wathen, A., Baines, M.J (1988) Moving Finite Elements for Evolutionary Problems(II) Applications. J.Comput. PHYS. 79 pp 270-297.

Read More »

Performance evaluation of forced convection desiccant bed solar dryer integrated with sensible heat storage material

[Pramod V. WalkePranav C. PhadkeKishor S. Rambhad] Volume 5: Issue 2, June 2018, pp 24-35 

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.5.20180501


Abstract This paper reports a new type of forced convection indirect type solar dryer setup fabricated in Nagpur, India and its performance was studied. The main objective of the present study was to incorporate new drying technology and develop a solar dryer that could function effectively for few more extra hours even after the sunset. Thus a forced convection indirect type solar dryer integrated with heat storage material (Gravel) & desiccant beds (Silica Gel) was developed.

In forced convection solar dryer with heat storage material, the grapes were dried from an initial moisture content of 80% to the final moisture content of 20%  in about 78 hours, while it took only about 57 hours in the forced convection solar dryer with heat storage and desiccant beds to reach the required moisture content. Due to the use of heat storage material, the temperatures inside the solar dryer remains 3-5°C higher than the ambient temperature even during off sunshine hours. Also, the heat storage regulates the temperature of the collector outlet during uneven climatic conditions. The maximum temperature attainedby air inside the dryer cabinet was 78°C. The desiccant beds can be regenerated in about 5 hours during a normal day and removes the moisture from the products even during the night. The air flow rate in both the cases was maintained at 0.026 kg/s. The quality of the grapes obtained from the solar dryer was excellent with proper coloring and taste as compared to those dried directly under the sun.

Index Terms— Desiccant bed, forced circulation, indirect type, heat storage material, solar dryers, silica gel


[1] Pallav Purohit, Atul Kumar, Tara Chandra Kandpal, 2006,“Solar drying vs. open sun drying:  A framework for financial evaluation.” Solar Energy. 80: 1568-1579.

[2] Atul Sharma, C. R. Chen, Nguyen Vu Lan, 2009, “Solar-energy drying systems: A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13: 1185-1210.

[3]  A. Fudholi, K. Sopian, M. H. Ruslan, M. A. Alghoul, M.Y. Sulaiman, 2010, “Review of solar dryers for agricultural and marine products.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14: 1-30.

[4] Ashish D. Chaudhari, and Sanjay P. Salve, 2014, "A Review of Solar Dryer Technologies." International Journal of Research in Advent Technology 22: 218-232.

[5] Gutti Babagana, Kiman Silas and B. G. Mustafa, 2012, “Design and Construction of Forced/Natural Convection Solar Vegetable Dryer with Heat Storage.” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 7(10): 105-112.

[6] Lalit M. Bal, Santosh Satya, S.N. Naik, Venkatesh Meda, 2011, “Review of solar dryers with latent heat storage systems for agricultural products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,” 15: 876-880.

[7] M. Mohanraj, P. Chandrasekar, 2009, “Performance of a forced convection solar drier integrated with gravel as heat storage material for chili drying, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,” 4(3): 305-314.

[8] Hodali, Riyad, and Jacques Bougard, 2001, "Integration of a desiccant unit in crops solar drying installation: optimization by numerical simulation." Energy conversion and management 42(13): 1543-1558.

[9] V. Shanmugam, E. Natarajan, 2006, "Experimental investigation of forced convection and desiccant integrated solar dryer." Renewable Energy 31(8): 1239-1251.

[10] V. Shanmugam, and E. Natarajan, 2007, "Experimental study of regenerative desiccant integrated solar dryer with and without reflective mirror." Applied Thermal Engineering 27(8): 1543-1551.

[11] Wisut Chramsa-arda, Sirinuch Jindaruksab, Chatchai Sirisumpunwonga, Sorawit Sonsaree, 2013, “Performance evaluation of the desiccant bed solar dryer.” Energy Procedia. 34: 189-197.

[12]  A. A. Hegazy, “Optimum channel geometry for solar air heaters of conventional design and constant flow operation, 1999” Energy Conversion and Management 40 757–774.

[13] A.A. El-Sebaii , S. Aboul-Enein, M.R.I. Ramadan, E. El-Bialy, 2007,  “Year round performance of double pass solar air heater with packed bed”, Energy Conversion and Management 48: 990–1003.

Read More »

Popular Posts