The Impacts of Ethanol - Gasoline Blended Fuels on the Pollutant Emissions and Performance of a Spark -Ignition Engine: An Empirical Study

[Ümit Ağbulut, Suat Sarıdemir, Gökhan Durucan] Volume 5: Issue 4, December 2018, pp 50-59 

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.4.5.20181201

Abstract - The blending of ethanol with imported gasoline types has been compulsory since January 1, 2018, with the Communiqué No. 30098 published in the Official Gazette in Turkey. In line with this, it is aimed to determine the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions resulting from the use of an SI engine. The experiments were performed at different speeds for different ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E10 and E20) under full load in a four-stroke, single-cylinder engine. As a result, air-fuel mixture ratios, torque, power, vibration and noise values, specific fuel consumption, harmful gas emissions (CO, HC, CO2 and NOx) was measured. Measurements were obtained with 96% accuracy. In this study, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions decreased, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions increased by the addition of ethanol to gasoline. On the other hand, the addition of ethanol has also led to a certain increase in brake specific fuel consumption, vibration and noise levels.

Index terms - Engine performance, Ethanol-gasoline blends, Exhaust emission, Fossil fuels.
[1] M. Yusri, R. Mamat, G. Najafi, A. Razman, O. I. Awad, W. H. Azmi, and A. I. M. Shaiful, ―Alcohol based automotive fuels from first four alcohol family in compression and spark ignition engine: a review on engine performance and exhaust emissions,‖ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 77, pp. 169-181, 2017.

[2] B. K. Debnath, U. K. Saha, and N. Sahoo, ―A comprehensive review on the application of emulsions as an alternative fuel for diesel engines,‖ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 42, pp. 196-211, 2015.

[3] H. M. Mahmudul, F. Y. Hagos, R. Mamat, A. A. Adam, W. F. Ishak, and R. Alenezi, ―Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines–A review,‖ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 72, pp. 497-509, 2017.

[4] Ü. Ağbulut, and H. Bakır, ―The Investigation on Economic and Ecological Impacts of Tendency to Electric Vehicles Instead of Internal Combustion Engines,’’ Duzce University Journal of Science & Technology, article in press.

[5] M. N. Smith. (2018, January 22). [Online]. Available:

[6] S. Leeb, and G. Strathy, ―The Coming Economic Collapse: How You Can Thrive When Oil Costs $200 A Barrel,‖ 1st ed., New York, U.S.A: Time Warner Book Group, 2006.

[7] E. Gören, ―Hibrit ve elektrikli araçlar ile toplu ulaşımda enerji verimliliği,‖ National Energy Efficiency Forum, İstanbul, Türkiye, 2011, pp. 28-32.

[8] U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2018, March 12). [Online]. Available:

[9] F. Karaosmanoğlu, A. Isigiguer-Erguedenler, and H. A. Aksoy, ―Alcohol fuel research in Turkey. Energy Sources‖ vol. 20, pp. 955–960, 1998.

[10] K. Varde, A. Jones, A. Knutsen, D. Mertz, and P. Yu, ―Exhaust emissions and energy release rates from a controlled spark ignition engine using ethanol blends,‖ Proc. I MECH E Part D J. Auto. Eng. vol. 221, pp. 993–941, 2007.

[11] M. C. Roberts,. ―E85 and fuel efficiency: An empirical analysis of 2007 EPA test data,‖ Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 1233–1235, 2008.

[12] C. W. Wu, R. H. Chen, J. Y. Pu, and T. H. Lin, ―The influence of air–fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline-blended fuels,‖ Atmos. Environ. vol. 38, pp. 7093–7100, 2004.

[13] Gao, J., Jiang, D., and Huang Z. 2007. Spray properties of alternative fuels: A comparative analysis of ethanol–gasoline blends and gasoline. Fuel 86:1645–1650.

[14] S. Sarıdemir, and Ü. Ağbulut ―The effects of engine speed to the single cylinder diesel engine vibration and noise,‖ International Advanced Research and Engineering Congress, Osmaniye, Türkiye, 2017 sayfa 689-694.

[15] A. Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, and A. Rezaei-Asl, ―The effect of added ethanol to diesel fuel on performance, vibration, combustion and knocking of a CI engine,‖. Fuel, vol. 185, pp. 718-733, 2016.

[16] A. Keskin, ―The influence of ethanol–gasoline blends on spark ignition engine vibration characteristics and noise emissions,‖ Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 32(20), pp. 1851-1860, 2010.

[17] G. Ioannis, et al. ―Vibration effects on spark ignition engine fuelled with methanol and ethanol gasoline blends,‖ Tarım Makinaları Bilimi Dergisi, vol. 7(4), pp. 367-372, 2011.

[18] Ümit Ağbulut & Suat Sarıdemir (2019): A General View to Converting Fossil Fuels to cleaner energy source by adding nanoparticles, International Journal of Ambient Energy, DOI: 10.1080/01430750.2018.1563822

[19] F. H. Palmer, ―Vehicle performance of gasoline containing oxygenates,‖ In International Conference on Petroleum Based Fuels and Automotive Applications. Imeche Conference Publications -11. Paper no C319/86, 1986. 

[20] M. Alexandrian, and M. Schwalm, ―Comparison of ethanol and gasoline as automotive fuels,‖ In Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 11/08-13/92, pp. 1-10, 1992. 

[21] A. A. Abdel Rahman, and M. M. Osman, ―Experimental investigation on varying the compression ratio of SI engine working under different ethanol–gasoline fuel blends,‖ International Journal of Energy Research, 21(1), 31-40, 1997. 

[22] R. M. Bata, A. C. Elrod, and R. W. Rice ―Emissions from IC engines fueled with alcohol–gasoline blends: a literature review,‖ Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, vol. 111(3), pp. 424-431, 1989 

[23] H. R. Chao, T. C. Lin, M. R. Chao, F. H. Chang, C. I. Huang, and C. B. Chen, ―Effect of methanol-containing additive on the emission of carbonyl compounds from a heavy-duty diesel engine,‖ Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 73(1), pp. 39-54, 2000. 

[24] G. Rideout, M. Kirshenblatt, and C. Prakash, ―Emissions from methanol, ethanol, and diesel powered urban transit buses,‖ SAE transactions, vol. 103, pp. 424-438, 1994. 

[25] R. W. Rice, A. K. Sanyal, A. C. Elrod, and R. M. Bata, ―Exhaust gas emissions of butanol, ethanol, and methanol-gasoline blends,‖ Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, vol. 113(3), pp. 377-381, 1991. 

[26] M. Gautam, D. W. Martin, and D. Carder, ―Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends,‖ Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, vol. 214(2), pp. 165-182, 2000.

[27] A. Elfasakhany, ―Exhaust emissions and performance of ternary iso-butanol–bio-methanol–gasoline and n-butanol–bio-ethanol–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engines: assessment and comparison,‖ Energy, vol. 158, pp. 830-844, 2018. 

[28] O. Uluer, M. Aktaş, İ. Karaağaç, G. Durmuş, A. Khanlari, Ü. Ağbulut, and D.N. Çelik, ―Mathematical calculation and experimental investigation of expanded perlite based heat insulation materials’ thermal conductivity values,‖ Journal of Thermal Engineering, vol. 4(5), pp. 2274-2286, 2018. 

[29] B. Doğan, D. Erol, H. Yaman, and E. Kodanli, ―The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis,‖ Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 120, pp. 433-443, 2017. 

[30] C. Ilkilic, ―Performance and emissions characteristics of biofuel blend in a CI engine,‖ Energy Educatıon Scıence And Technology Part A-Energy Scıence and Research, vol. 28(1), pp. 369-378, 2011. 

[31] M. Al-Hasan, ―Effect of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission,‖ Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 44(9), pp. 1547-1561, 2003. 

[32] C. W. Wu, R. H. Chen, J. Y. Pu, and T. H. Lin, ―The influence of air–fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline-blended fuels,‖ Atmospheric Environment, vol. 38(40), pp. 7093-7100, 2004. 

[33] M. Gautam, and D. W. Martin, ―Combustion characteristics of higher-alcohol/gasoline blends,‖ Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, vol. 214(5), pp. 497-511, 2000. 

[34] B. M. Masum, H. H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam, S. M. Palash, and M. Habibullah, ―Effect of alcohol–gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties, performance and emissions of a SI engine,‖ Journal of Cleaner Production, 86, 230-237, 2015. 

[35] M. Eyidoğan, M. Çanakcı, A. N. Özsezen, E. Alptekin, A. Türkcan, and İ. Kılıçaslan, ―Etanol-Benzin ve Metanol-Benzin Karışımlarının Buji ile Ateşlemeli Bir Motorun Yanma Parametrelerine ve Egzoz Emisyonlarına Etkisinin İncelenmesi,‖ Gazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 26(3), pp. 499-507, 2011. 

[36] M. N. Yusoff, A. M., Zulkifli, H. H., Masjuki, M. H. Harith, A. Z. Syahir, L. S. Khuong, and A. Alabdulkarem, ―Comparative assessment of ethanol and isobutanol addition in gasoline on engine performance and exhaust emissions,‖ Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 190, pp. 483-495, 2018.

[37] C. Sayin, K. Uslu, and M. Canakci, ―Influence of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel CI engine,‖ Renewable Energy, 33(6), 1314-1323, 2008.

[38] Nas, E., & Gökkaya, H. (2017). Experimental and Statistical Study on Machinability of the Composite Materials with Metal Matrix Al/B4C/Graphite. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 48(10), 5059-5067.

[39] Erkan, Ö., Demetgül, M., Işik, B., & Tansel, I. N. (2014). Selection of optimal machining conditions for the composite materials by using Taguchi and GONNs. Measurement, 48, 306-313.

[40] Nas, E., & Öztürk, B. (2018). Optimization of surface roughness via the Taguchi method and investigation of energy consumption when milling spheroidal graphite cast iron materials. Materials Testing, 60(5), 519-525.

[41] Yücel, E., & Saruhan, H. (2017). Design optimization of rotor-bearing system considering critical speed using Taguchi method. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 231(2), 138-146.

[42] Sur, G., & Erkan, Ö. (2018). Cutting Tool Geometry In The Drilling Of Cfrp Composite Plates And Taguchi Optimisation Of The Cutting Parameters Affecting Delamination. Sigma Journal Of Engineering And Natural Sciences-Sigma Muhendislik ce Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 36(3), 619-628.

[43] Nas, E. & Akincioğlu, S. Kriyojenik İşlem Görmüş Nikel Esaslı Süperalaşımın Elektro-Erozyon İşleme Performansı Optimizasyonu. Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(1), 1-1.

Popular Posts