Manufacturing and Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers

[Nand Jee Kanu, Sachin Chavan, Siddhesh Navale, Anil Khulape, Harshavardhan Kamble, Nikhil Bagal] Volume 6: Issue 2, May 2019, pp 59-62

DOI: 10.26706/IJAEFEA.2.6.20190403

Abstract Carbon is a chemical element having atomic number 6 and specified by using letter “C”.it has high chemical bonding flexibility. Because of this property it can form number of stable organic and inorganic molecules. It is common element of all known life because of its ability to form polymer at different temperatures. Carbon atoms having atomic bonding forms number of allotropes which have different properties. The well known allotropes are Graphite and  Diamond. Because of having various properties like thermal, electrical, electromagnetic shielding and mechanical properties it shows the versatility of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). A carbon nanofiber is very small in size and exists at nanometer scale having atom in between 0.1 to 0.5 nm. There is difference between the Conventional carbon fiber and carbon nanofiber. Generally, conventional carbon fiber having diameter in the range of 5-10 micrometer whereas the carbon nanofiber having diameter about 50-200 nm. These carbon nanofibers are examined under the specialized microscopes such as STM (scanning tunneling microscope), AFM (atomic force microscope), TEM (transmission electron microscope), and SEM (scanning electron microscope).
This paper presents the entire experimental work and manufacturing of carbon nanofiber using electrospinning process. Carbon nanofibers obtained by electrospinning process were characetrised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Index terms - Electrospinning, Carbon nanofibers, Polyacrylonitril (PAN), Dimethylformamide (DMF), Characterization
[1] Zheng-Ming HuangY. -Z. Zhang, M. Kotaki, S. Ramakrishna “A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites” Composites Science and Technology 63 (2003) 2223–2253

[2] G. B. Fields, J. L. Lauer, Y. Dori, P. Forns, Y. C. Yu, M. Tirrel, “Protein-like molecular architecture: biomaterial applications for inducing cellular receptor binding and signal transduction”, Biopolymers, 47,143–51 (1998)

[3] Bergshoef MM, Vancso GJ. Transparent nanocomposites with ultrathin, electrospun Nylon-4,6 fiber reinforcement. Adv Mater 1999;11(16):1362–5. .

[4] Buchko CJ, Kozloff KM, Martin DC. Surface characterization of porous, biocompatible protein polymer thin films. Biomaterials 2001;22(11):1289–300.

[5] J.M Deitzel, J Kleinmeyer,D.Harris,N.C Beck Tan “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of the electrospun nanofibers and textile”, Polymer 42(2001)261-272. .

[6] Demczyk B.G., Wang Y.M., Cumings J., Hetman M., Han W., Zettl A., et al. “Direct mechanical measurement of the tensile strength and elastic modulus of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 334, (2002), Pg. 173–178

[7] Ko FK, El-Aufy A, Lam H, and MacDiarmid AG. “Electrostatically generated nanofibres for wearable electronics”: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2005.  

[8] Li C, Thostenson ET, Chou T-W. Sensors and actuators based on carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review. Compos Sci Technol 2008; 68:1227–49.

[9] Brian P. Sautter, “Continuous Polymer Nanofibers Using Electrospinning” NSF-REU Summer 2005 Program, University of Illinois at Chicago August 5, 2005

[10] Nasimamiraliyan, Mahdi Nouri, and Mohammad Haghighat Kish, “Electrospinning of Silk Nanofibers. I. An Investigation of Nanofiber Morphology and Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology”, Fibers and Polymers 2009, Vol.10, No.2, 167-176.

[11] Ashraf A. Ali, M.A. El-Hamid, “Electro-spinning optimization for precursor carbon nanofibers”, Composites: Part A 37 (2006) 1681–1687.

[12] S.Y. Gu, J. Ren, G.J. Vancso, “Process optimization and empirical modelling for electrospunpolyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber precursor of carbon nanofibers”, European Polymer Journal 41(2005) 2559–2568 M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989

[13] Homahomayoni, Seyed Abdol karim hosseiniravandi, Masou mehvali zadeh, “Electrospinning of chitosan nanofibers: Processing optimization”, Carbohydrate Polymers 77 (2009)656–661  

[14] Peng Ye, Zhi-Kang Xu, Jian Wu, Christophe Innocent, Patrick Seta, “Nanofibrous poly (acrylonitrileco- maleic acid) membranes functionalized with gelatin and chitosan for lipase immobilization”, Biomaterials 27 (2006) 4169–4176.

[15] Sang Kyoo Lim, Sung-Ho Hwang, Daeic Chang, Soonhyun Kim, “Preparation of mesoporous In2O3 nanofibers by electrospinning and their application as a CO gas sensor”, Sensors and Actuators B 149 (2010) 28–33.

[16] Travis J. Sill, Horst A. von Recum, “Review Electrospinning: Applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering”, Biomaterials 29 (2008) 1989-2006

[17] Narayan Bhattarai, Dennis Edmondson, Omid Veiseh, Frederick A. Matsen, Miqin Zhanga, “Electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers and their cellular compatibility”, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 6176–6184.

[18] Bogdan Cramariuc, Radu Cramariuc, Roxana Scarlet, Liliana Rozemarie Manea, Iuliana G. Lupu, Oana Cramariuc, “Fiber diameter in electrospinning process”, Journal of Electrostatics xxx (2013) 1-10

[19] Pirjo Heikkilä, Ali Harlin, “Parameter study of electrospinning of polyamide-6”, European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 3067–3079.

[20] George G. Chase, Jackapon Sunthorn Varabhas, Darrell H Renekar,"New Methods to Electrospin nanofibers", Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics.

[21] K Garg, S A Sell and G L Bowlin, “Electrospinning and its influence on the structure on polymeric nanofibers” Virginia Common wealth b University, USA

Popular Posts