Design and Finite Element Analysis of Differential Cover for Rear Drive axle of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)

Nikita Duble and A. D. Diwate 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp  53-60

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Author's Information
Nikita Duble1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
nikitaduble.duble@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Nikita Duble and A. D. Diwate, “Design and Finite Element Analysis of Differential Cover for Rear Drive axle of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 53-60, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200612

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Abstract - This work is intended to design differential cover based on existing cover. The cover is checked for structural stability by performing finite element analysis. Earlier observed issues like premature cover failure, bolt loosening (carrier to cover) and oil leakage from cover mating surface are rectified through finite element analysis. This is done by performing multiple FEA iterations by changing wall thickness, size of hole and number of holes. Fatigue life of differential cover obtained by finite element method is validated by experimental method. The model chose is that of a light commercial vehicle which has a gross axle weight rating 1050 kg. The cover material is SAPH 440 (Steel Automotive Pickled Hot-rolled and 440 MPa minimum tensile strength). 

Index terms - Differential cover, Drive axle, Gross axle weight rating 
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REFERENCES
[1] Sivasakthi D, R. Prabhu, “Tractor Rear Axle Casing”, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Volume 5, Issue IV, April 2017.

[2] Siddarth Dey, P.R.V.V.V Sri Rama Chandra Murthy. D, P.Baskar . "Structural Analysis of Front axle beam of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V11(5), pp. 208-213, May 2014.

[3] Lalit Kumar, Chandrakant Singh, Bhumesh Kumar Dewangan, Prakash Kumar Sen, Shailendra Kumar Bohidar, “Study on the Front Axle and Rear Axle Attached to Differential System”, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2014.
[4] Lu, S. K., Su, J. H., Liao, S. D., Su, J. Q., Wang, B., Yu, L., Jiang, Y. L., & Wen, S. H., “Finite Element Analysis on Fatigue Failure Prediction of a Rear Axle Housing of Vehicle Based on Cosmos”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 121–126, 843–847, 2011.

[5] Wu Zhijun, Zhang Lihua, “Optimal Design for Rear Drive Axle House Based on Fuzzy Reliability Robust Analysis”, International Conference on Chemical, Material and Food Engineering (CMFE-2015), Atlantic Press, pp. 875 - 880, 2015.
[6] Amol A. Sangule, Prof. Dalwe D.M., “A Review on Modeling and Analysis of Front Axle of Alto Maruti-800 LMV Car for Weight Reduction”, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Volume 7, Issue IV, Apr 2019.

[7] Pravin R.Ahire, Prof. K. H. Munde, “Design and analysis of front axle for heavy commercial vehicle”, International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science, Volume 5 Issues 7 July 2016, Page No. 17333-17337.

[8] Chetan D. Papat, Idris Poonawala, S.M.Gaikwad, “Design of axle housing bolted joint by analytical method”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 4 Ver. VI, Jul- Aug. 2014, PP 55-60.

[9] Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohd Syamil Tajuddin, Mohd Nurhidayat Zahelem, “Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear Axle Housing by using Finite Elements Analysis”, The International Journal of Engineering and Science, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 53-61, 2014.
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Design Optimization of Foldable Hangar Door for Naval Ships

Abhijeet S. Daule and A. D. Diwate 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp 45 - 52  

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Author's Information
Abhishek S. Daule1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
abhijeet.daule@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Abhishek S. Daule and Prof. A. D. Diwate, “Design Optimization of Foldable Hangar Door for Naval Ships”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 45-52, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200608

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Abstract - After landing of helicopter on the deck of naval ship, it is to be protected from the sea atmospheric condition. For this purpose, a parking area is available on the deck of ship. The aft end of helicopter is enclosed in the hangar on deck of ship with the help of Foldable Hangar Door system. It is two door panel system which are foldable hanging type at the hinges at the top of hangar. The purpose of this system is only for proper movement of helicopter and its protection from different sea states conditions. In this project, after studying the available Foldable Hangar Door, different site issues related to the reliability of system are observed and that are tried to overcome by providing alternate possibilities as well as design optimization of system is done for the improvement of performance of system. In this project the issues which were causing difficulties are modified with new design and with some alternate solutions. The new system of Foldable Hangar Door is modeled and designed with performing the analysis of the new alternate possible solutions and are compared with the old design system in each aspect including weight of system, the performance of system etc. The system is also analyzed for different loading condition including sea atmospheric conditions are compared with the old design and found to be performing well. Hence new design approach of the system is further proceeded for the approval of customer where it will be validated for the specified system operating condition which are already specified by them while doing the designing. 

Index terms - Foldable Hangar Door (FHD), Top Lock Pin, Top Lock Assembly, ALJO Door, MAFO Door, Primary Assembly, Secondary Assembly.
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REFERENCES
[1] A. P Mouritz, E Gellert, P Burchill and K Challis, Review of advanced composite structures for naval ships and submarines”, Composite Structures, Volume 53, Issue 1, July 2001, pp. 21–42.

[2] Garlock Ltd., “Sealing technology R&D facility opens its doors to design engineers”, Sealing Technology, Volume 2003, Issue 10, October 2003, Pages 4.

[3] “Statement of Technical Report”, Larsen & Toubro.

[4] ALJO-Foldable Hangar Door

[5] Schweiss Hydraulic Bi-Fold Hangar Door



[8] Ro-Ro External / Internal Top Hinge Hangar Door

[9] Well-bilt Bi-Foldable Hangar Door

[10] F. C. Campbell, “Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys”, ASM International, 2008.
[11] Shih-Bin Wang and Chih-Fu Wu, “Design of the force measuring system for the hinged door: Analysis of the required operating torque”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 49, September 2015, Pages 1–10.

[12] Larsen & Toubro Training Material

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Analysis for Effect of Slight Pitch Difference on the Fatigue Life of Bolt

Nikhil D. Salunkhe and A. D. Diwate 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp 37 - 44  

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Author's Information
Nikhil D. Salunkhe1 
Corresponding Author
1ME Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.
nikhil.salunkhe4@gmail.com

A. D. Diwate2
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TSSM BSCOER Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Nikhil D. Salunkhe and Prof. A. D. Diwate, “Analysis of Effect of Slight Pitch Difference on the Fatigue Life of Bolt”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 37-44, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200607

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Abstract - In this work fatigue failure is examine for bolt with nut connections, when a slight pitch difference is established between bolt and nut. To improve the fatigue life, there are three types of slight pitch difference processed on the specimens and results are discussed in terms of FEM analysis. Taking into consideration the standard dimension bolt and nut connection having pitch difference of (α) =0 μm, the bolt fracture does not happen at the No. 1 thread by introducing a slight pitch difference of (α) =5 μm and pitch difference (α) =15 μm, is observed. Furthermore, it is having been discovered that the fatigue life of bolt can be increase by introducing some slight pitch differences. The effect of bolt-nut connection with slight pitch difference, on the fatigue failure of bolt is discovered.

Index terms - Bolt-Nut Connection, Pitch Difference, Finite Element Method, Fatigue life.
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REFERENCES
[1] Nao-Aki Noda, Xin Chen, Yoshikazu Sano, Magd Abdel Wahab, Hikaru Maruyama, Ryota Fujisawa, Yasushi Takase, “Effect of pitch difference between the bolt–nut connections upon the anti-loosening performance and fatigue life”, Materials and Design, Volume 96, Pages 476-489, April 2016.

[2] E Dragoni, “Effect of thread pitch on the fatigue strength of steel bolts” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Volume: 211 issue: 8, pp. 591-600, August 1997.

[3] Xin Chen, Nao-Aki Noda, Magd Abdel Wahab, Yu-Ichiro Akaishi, Yoshikazu Sano, Yasushi Takase, Gusztáv Fekete, “Fatigue Failure Analysis for Bolt-Nut Connections having Slight Pitch Differences using Experimental and Finite Element Methods”, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, Vol. 12, No. 8, 2015.

[4] Nao-Aki Noda, Yoshikazu Sano Xin Chen, Magd Abdel Wahab, Hikaru Maruyama, “Effect of pitch difference between the bolt and nut connections upon the anti-loosening performance and fatigue life” Materials & Design, Volume 96, April 2016, Pages 476-489.

[5] Xin Chen, Nao-Aki Noda, Yu-Ichiro Akaishi, Yoshikazu Sano, “Effect of Pitch Difference on Anti-loosening Performance and fatigue strength for high Strength Bolts and Nuts”, 13th International Conference on Fracture, Beijing, China, June 16–21, 2013.

[6] G.H. Majzoobi, G.H. Farrahi, N. Habibi, “Experimental evaluation of the effect of thread pitch on fatigue life of bolts”, International Journal of Fatigue, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 189-196, February 2005.

[7]    Chae-Ho Lee, Beom-Jun Kim, and Seog Young Han, Mechanism for Reducing Stress Concentrations in Bolt and Nut Connectors”, International Journal Of Precision Engineering And Manufacturing, volume 15, No. 7, no. 7, pp. 1337-1343, 2014.


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Analysis of Elliptical Shape Composite Spring Mounting

Kalpesh Sahebrao Sonawane and P. J. Ambhore 

International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp 28 - 36. 

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Author's Information
Kalpesh Sahebrao Sonawane1 
Corresponding Author
kalpesh.sonawane93@gmail.com

P. J. Ambhore2

1,2Department of mechanical engineering, 

G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering and Management, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Research Article
Published online – 30 July 2020

Open Access article under Creative Commons License

Cite this article – Kalpesh Sahebrao Sonawane and P. J. Ambhore, “Analysis of Elliptical Shape Composite Spring Mounting”, International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, RAME Publishers, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 28-36, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200604

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Abstract - A motor mounting is an application segment that interfaces the motor section to the machine edge of unit. Motor is connected with the machine body by a few mounts, which are significant for smooth activity of use. A motor mount is utilized to confine body from vibration during working and motor created commotion varying sorts of mounts are use in apparatus and vehicles. Varying kinds of mounts are use in apparatus and vehicles. Elastomeric mount are minimal effort and least complex kind of mounts, they smother motor power/torque and vibrations through cooling. An elastomeric mount can give the predetermined solidness to the reverberation control and stun retention; however elastic damping in low frequencies isn't adequate. Circular shape spring mounting might be a vibration and stun isolator planned explicitly for back mounted motor applications and is reasonable to watch the apparatus client against stun and vibration in back held application like motor sprayers, trimmers and expresses. Material chose for spring is SS304 (from 0.3 ~ 0.8mm) thickness and polymer material as support in spring. The two materials are resistant to consumption and work productively under wide choice of temperature. Essential structure utilizes high pliable hardened stainless-steel SS304 framed leaves on all sides with the polymer sheet of 6mm thickness. Unigraphics Nx-8.0 is used for 3D modeling and Analysis of component and meshing is completed with the help of Ansys work Bench16.0.

Index terms - Force/torque, polymer, SS304, Unigraphics Nx-8.0, Ansys Work-Bench 16.0
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REFERENCES
[1] Kalpesh Sahebrao Sonawane, Prof. P. J. Ambhore, “Review and Design of Elliptical Shape Composite Spring Mount for Agriculture Engines”, International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, Vol-6, Issue-1, 2020.

[2] Umesh S. Ghorpade, D. S. Chavan, Vinay Patil, Mahindra Gaikwad, “Finite Element Analysis and Natural Frequency Optimization of Engine Bracket”, International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Vol-2, Issue-3, 2012.

[3] P. Lakshmi Kala and V. Ratna Kiran, “Modeling and Analysis of V6 Engine Mount Bracket”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, pp. 5907-5914, 2015.

[4] Abdolvahab Agharkakli, Digvijay Pradip Wagh, “Linear Characterization of Engine Mount and Body Mount for Crash Analysis”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Volume-3, Issue-2, December 2013.

[5] Dr. Yadavalli Basavaraj, Manjunatha. T. H, “Design Optimization of Automotive Engine Mount System”, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013.

[6] P. D. Jadhav, Ramakrishna, “Finite Element Analysis of Engine Mount Bracket, International journal of advancement in engineering technology, IJAET, Volume 1 Issue 4 September 2014.

[7] Monali Deshmukh, Prof. K R Sontakke, “Analysis and Optimization of Engine Mounting Bracket”, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, Volume 3 Issue 5, May 2015.
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Nano-Mechanical Eukaryotic Cell Behavior by Finite Element Modeling

E. El Kennassi, F. El Kennassi, M. A. Dirhar, E. Azelmad, K. I. Janati, L. Bousshine 

Volume 7: Issue 2, July 2020, pp  

https://doi.org/10.26706/ijaefea.2.7.20200603

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Abstract - There is a need to understand the eukaryotic cell mechanics behavior. The used methods are nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy AFM. The first method gives displacement information at the size ranging between 10-9 and 10-3 meter for a load ranging from 10-7 to 10 Newton. The second method gives information at the size ranging between 10-11 and 10-7 meter for a load ranging from 10-12 to 10-5 Newton. This work concerns the nanoindentation eukaryotic cell simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics and the relation to AFM. We investigate the nano-mechanical cell behavior by the finite element mechanics continuum implementation. We created a 2D cell model which is constrained vertically at the bottom. The cytoplasm was assimilated to a hyperelastic material model. The contact between nanoindenter and cell is simulated as source boundary. We also incorporated to the model a circular section which represents the nucleus. This later will influence the mechanical response and it was chosen to be elastic. Results obtained after modeling and simulation are in good agreements with those obtained experimentally.

Index terms - Multiphysics, Eukariotic cell, Nanoindentation, Modeling, COMSOL, Finite Element method.
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REFERENCES
[1] L. Chua, “Finite Element Modelling of Living Cells”, Final Report of Mechanical Engineering Individual Project, The University of Edinburg, 2013/2014.

[2] Y. Ding, X. Niu, G. Wang, “Elastic compression of nanoparticles with surface energy”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48, 7pp, 2015.

[3] D. E. Ingber, “The architecture of life”, Scientic. C American, Inc. 48-57, 1998.

[4] M. Zhang, Y. Cao, G. Li, X. Feng, “Spherical indentation method for determining the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic soft materials”, Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 13:1-11, 2014.

[5] Michelle L. Oyen, Handbook of nanoindentation with biological applications. Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. 2011.

[6] B. Fallqvist, “On the mechanics of actin and intermediate filament networks and their contribution to cellular mechanics” KTH school of engineering sciences, royal institute of technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2015.

[7] D. E. Ingber, “Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology”. Journal of Cell Science, 116, 1157-1173, 2003

[8] Comsol software licence agreement, “Fluid-structure interaction in a network of blood vessels”.

[9] D. W. Pepper, J. C. Heinrich, The finite element method. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis group, 2017.

[10] M. Sato et al., “Local mechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy for cultured bovine endothelial cells exposed to shear stress”. Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 127-135, 2000.

[11] E. A-Hassan et al., “Relative microelastic mapping of living cells by atomic force microscopy” Biophysical journal, 74, 1564-1578, 1998.

[12] L. Chen et al., “Modeling effect of surface roughness on nanoindentation tests” Procedia CIRP 8, 334-339, 2013.

[13] Comsol Multiphysics, “Essentials of postprocessing and visuaisation in COMSOL multiphysics®”, Comsol Handbook series, 2015.

[14] R. Garcia, E. T. Herruzo, “The emergence of multifrequence force microscopy” Nature nanotechnology, 7, 217-226, 2014.

[15] Th. Reuter, M. Hoffmann, “A elastic and hyperelastic material model of joint cartilage- Calculation of the pressure dependent material stress in joint cartilage”, COMSOL conference, Stuttgart, 2011.

[16] Y. Ding et al., “Compression of hyperelastic cells at finite deformation with surface energy”, International journal of applied mechanics, vol. 8, no. 6, 2015.

[17] Y. Ding et al., “On the determination of elastic moduli of cells by AFM based indentation”, Nature Scientific reports, 7, 2017.

[18] S. Dokos, “Modelling organs tissues, cells and devices using Matlab and Comsol multiphysics”, Springer-verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2017.

[19] G. Ferrazzi, “Numerical modeling of Atomic Force Microscopy towards estimation of material parameters from fibroblast cells”, Degree project in solid mechanics second level, Stockholm, Sweden, 2011.

[20] P. M. Schön, M. Gosa, G. J. Vancso, “Imaging of mechanical properties of soft matter from heterogeneous polymer surfaces to singles biomolecules”, Imaging and microscopy, 2012.

[21] W. K. Liu et al., “Imersed finite element method and its applications to biological systems”, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 195, 1722-1749, 2006.

[22] M. Plodinec “Probing the determinants of cellular elasticity by AFM”, Thesis, Basel, 2012.

[23] J. Marra, J. Israelachvili “Direct measurements of forces between phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers in aqueous electrolyte solutions”, Biochemistry, 24, 4608-4618, 1985.

[24] H. Ladjal et al. “Micro to nano biomechanical modeling for assisted biological cell injection”, Hal archives ouvertes, 2013.

[25] S. A. James et al., “Atomic force microscopy of biofilms-imaging, interactions, and mechanics”, Intech open science, chapter 6, 95-118, 2016.

[26] Y. M. Efremov et al., “Anisotropy vs isotropy in living cell indentation with AFM”, Nature Scientific reports, 9:5757.

[27] A. Boccaccio et al., “Nanoindentation characterization of human colorectal cancer cells considering cell geometry, surface roughness and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour”, IOP Publishing Ltd. Nanotechnology 28, 2017.

[28] Q. Yang et al., “Nanoindentation experiment and modeling for biomechanical behavior of red blood cell”, Proceeding of the IEEE, 2011.

[29] G. Tang et al., “Biomechanical heterogeneity of living cells: comparison between atomic force microscopy and finite element simulation”, Langmuir 35, 7578-7587, 2019.

[30] M. Marsal et al., “AFM and microrhelogy in the zebrafish embryo yolk cell”, Journal of visualized experiments 129, 2017.

[31] O. Sahin et al., “An atomic force microscope tip designed to measure time-varying nanomechanical forces”, Nature Nanotechnology 2, 2007.

[32] K. K. M. Sweers et al., “Spatially resolved frequency-dependent elasticity measured with pulsed force microscopy and nanoindentation”, Nanoscale 4, 2072-2077, 2007.

[33] M. Radmacher et al., “Imaging adhesion forces and elasticity of lysozyme adsorbed on mica with the atomic force microscope”, Langmuir 10, 3809-3814, 1994.

[34] F. Rico et al., “Mechanical mapping of single membrane proteins at submolecular resolution”, Nano letters, 3983-3986, 1994.



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